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Robert G. Fovell, Yizhe Peggy Bu, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Wen-wen Tung, Yang Cao, Hung-Chi Kuo, Li-huan Hsu, and Hui Su

) demonstrated that storm track and structure are both sensitive to the manner of TC initialization, and Hsu et al. (2013 , hereinafter P6) showed how diabatic heating forced by flow over topography could explain speed variations of typhoons approaching and crossing an island like Taiwan. P4 ’s explanation for outer region convective activity was finally assessed in Bu et al. (2014 , hereinafter P7) and was determined to be insufficient to explain why CRF results in wider tropical cyclones. Their

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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

ice can be unstable during the summer months and impenetrable by ship in the winter months. Long-term measurements using sophisticated instruments, such as those utilized by the ARM Program, place high demands on infrastructure and power resources. The Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project ( Moritz et al. 1993 ), led by the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research, provided an opportunity to take advantage of logistical support funded by other programs. The

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Maike Ahlgrimm, Richard M. Forbes, Jean-Jacques Morcrette, and Roel A. J. Neggers

) were designed to reproduce the first-order impact of unresolved turbulence and convection on the vertical transport of heat, moisture, and momentum and their contribution to fractional cloudiness and condensate. This approach has led to demonstrable improvement in weather and climate predictions (e.g., Tiedtke 1989 ). The initial success inspired the further sophistication and development of these boundary layer schemes. Typically, schemes were developed and tested for certain cases based on

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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

North Atlantic Ocean: marine stratus; transition between marine stratus and broken cloud fields; high specific humidity North Slope of Alaska (NSA): large seasonal variations in surface properties; distinct surface properties from other locales Gulf Stream off eastern North America, extending eastward: extreme values and variation in surface heat fluxes; marine stratus clouds; altostratus clouds; mature cyclonic storms; genesis region for cumulonimbus and widespread layered clouds associated with

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Taroh Matsuno

was soon after this that the paper by Ogura and Phillips (1962) on the anelastic approximation appeared. Professor Kuo’s presentation was titled “On cellular convection and heat transfer,” which was a finite amplitude theory of Bénard convection, a cutting-edge problem in fluid mechanics at that time. Although he could not come to the symposium, Professor Yoshi Sasaki contributed the paper “Effects of condensation, evaporation and rainfall on development of mesoscale disturbances: A numerical

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Eric D. Maloney and Chidong Zhang

and Julian (1971 ; 1972) that first documented the MJO. The scientific findings contained in Yanai et al. (1968) also provided impetus for the MJO discovery. Roland Madden recalled “it was also that paper that reported results for the 1962 period that I could not reproduce from the Line Islands experiment (spring of 1967), and so we became interested in the time-varying characteristics of the tropospheric waves” (R. Madden 2010, personal communication). Motivated to study the nonstationarity

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D. Baumgardner, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, R. Cotton, J. Crosier, P. Field, C. Gurganus, A. Heymsfield, A. Korolev, M. Krämer, P. Lawson, G. McFarquhar, Z. Ulanowski, and J. Um

) Measurement principles (i) Hot-wire sensors The King and Nevzorov probes measure the power required to maintain the sensor at a constant temperature. They are referred to as “first principle” instruments because the heat lost from the sensor due to the transfer of energy via radiation, convection, and evaporation of droplets can be directly calculated based on thermodynamic principles. The energy transfer by radiation is usually ignored because its contribution to the total energy loss is negligible when

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Steven K. Krueger, Hugh Morrison, and Ann M. Fridlind

European Commission Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, and several U.S., Australian, Canadian, and European universities. Measurements included a five-station, 3-hourly sounding array, with one station aboard ship offshore. The sounding array enclosed a coastal area roughly the size of a coarse-resolution GCM grid box. Multiple surface energy budget sites characterized maritime and continental surface sensible, latent, and radiative heat fluxes. Scanning precipitation radars provided

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

better understand the problem climate and weather variables needed to be integrated with other livelihood and ecosystems stressors—that the inclusion of social variables expanded. This included studies on the impact of heat islands, warning systems, the costs and benefits of different interventions, and the intersection of climate-related and geophysical factors (e.g., rainfall, temperature, altitude, glacier melting, pollutants, and vector and respiratory diseases) and health (e.g., Kalkstein et al

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

explanation for both the ozone transport (e.g., Newell 1963 ) and the heat budget of the stratosphere ( Sawyer 1965 ) without the need for a mean meridional circulation. Vincent (1968) attempted to understand the circulation with an Eulerian-mean analysis including the eddy effects but discovered that, instead of the single hemispheric cell of Brewer’s and Dobson’s proposed model, his analysis indicated two cells, with a reverse cell in the high latitudes with upward motion in the poleward region and

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