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Zhiming Yang, Bo Yang, Pengfei Liu, Yunquan Zhang, and Xiao-Chen Yuan

in regions with low economic development, due to the lack of prevention and adaptation measures, such as air conditioning and medical facilities. In the case of extreme heat, our results show that the rich are slightly more affected than the poor. The vast majority of wealthy people live in urban areas in China, where there might be a more serious heat island effect ( Hua et al. 2008 ), which brings a more severe and lasting negative effect to local people. 6. Conclusions We establish the

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Katherine Foxhall

, it shows how passengers framed their entrance into the tropics by relating weather and climate to formal measurements of latitude and longitude, their own observational activities, and their position in regard to Atlantic coasts and islands. But observation did not remain distinct from experience, and the second section shows how a contemporary medical framework that emphasized the environmental causes of disease—particularly heat, humidity, and calms—ratified physical changes effected by the

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Paul Butke and Scott C. Sheridan

Hopkins International Airport for the period of 1999–2004. This location is the only first-order weather station in the city. The hourly data utilized in this study include temperature and dewpoint. While there are microclimate issues, including the urban heat island effect, the lake breeze, and the fact that indoor conditions can vary significantly from outdoor conditions, it is assumed in this study that the weather data are representative of the entire city of Cleveland. A total of 52 608 h were

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Dorian Speakman

heat waves as a hazard, indicating for many of the sites heat waves are rare, and the risk is perceived as lower than for excess rain. d. Adaptation to high winds All mainland (i.e., on the island of Great Britain itself) sites used either trees (13 in total) and/or hedges (12 in total) as windbreaks. Most of the island-based sites did not, instead using mesh or fishing nets to break up the wind; mesh was also used by four inland sites. Four sites also used raised earth banks to divert the wind

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Margaret V. du Bray, Amber Wutich, and Alexandra Brewis

2007 ). Because this is a coastal area that is already biophysically vulnerable to the effects of tropical storms and hurricanes, it is expected that climate change will intensify this vulnerability and increase the likelihood of coastal erosion, changes in ocean acidification, and sea level rise ( IPCC 2007 ). b. Alaska Kodiak Island is in southern Alaska, separated from mainland Alaska by the Shelikof Strait. The town of Kodiak is the main town of seven rural villages on the island. The town

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David M. Schultz and Vladimir Janković

. Fortunately, such steps taken to protect society from the weather can protect the planet as well. Whether through improving weather forecasts, increasing preparedness, or building better infrastructure, these steps can increase resilience and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. For example, greening neighborhoods or painting roofs lighter colors will both reduce the urban heat island effect and reduce carbon dioxide emissions through reduced air-conditioning costs. For a second example, making cities more

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Detlef Jahn

. Part 4 conducts a statistical analysis in order to estimate the impact of climate and weather conditions on atmospheric emissions along the lines of the above outlined hypothesis. 2. Toward an index of the heating degrees for 21 OECD countries from 1960 to 2005 Heating degrees are quantitative indices designed to reflect the energy needed to heat a home or business to a comfortable temperature. These indices are derived from regular temperature observations and the heating requirements at a

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L. Bruce Railsback

. Earlier empires, most notably the Roman Empire, occupied parts of two or even three of the continents surrounding the Mediterranean, but they were neither transoceanic nor significantly discontinuous. Table 3. Examples of geographically discontinuous or multicontinental or transoceanic empires. Although no nation presently holds a geographically discontinuous multicontinental transoceanic empire (at least in name), several nations explicitly claim or hold distant islands ( Table 4 ). In addition to

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J. Nalau, S. Becken, S. Noakes, and B. Mackey

islands ( Becken et al. 2014 ), and the benefits of better information about extreme events have been broadly discussed in literature (e.g., Becken et al. 2014 ; Bloodhart et al. 2015 ; Klint et al. 2012 ). Extreme weather events, such as cyclones, droughts, and heat waves typically occur relatively infrequently, but can be highly disruptive and destructive. Changes in climatic conditions that deviate from mean conditions of climate (climatic norms are measured across a 30-yr period) are referred

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Elizabeth L. Malone

any kind) helps to assess the potential for state stability. Where recent trends are projected to continue (e.g., increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, earlier spring onset), policies and actions that build resilience have the additional benefit of building stability. Although estimating impacts of climate change is a necessary part of analyzing national security, so are the possible responses of countries, including transformations in the energy system and competition

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