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Matthew J. Widlansky, H. Annamalai, Stephen B. Gingerich, Curt D. Storlazzi, John J. Marra, Kevin I. Hodges, Barry Choy, and Akio Kitoh

1. Introduction a. Tropical cyclones in the Pacific Islands The global number of tropical cyclones detected each year has remained remarkably constant (82 ± 8 standard deviation) since reliable satellite meteorological measurements began in 1981, and likely for long before then. A total of 60% of global tropical cyclones form in the Pacific Ocean ( Schreck et al. 2014 ), which is also where the strongest and largest storms on the planet occur. On average, 26 tropical cyclones form in the

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Zhiming Yang, Bo Yang, Pengfei Liu, Yunquan Zhang, and Xiao-Chen Yuan

in regions with low economic development, due to the lack of prevention and adaptation measures, such as air conditioning and medical facilities. In the case of extreme heat, our results show that the rich are slightly more affected than the poor. The vast majority of wealthy people live in urban areas in China, where there might be a more serious heat island effect ( Hua et al. 2008 ), which brings a more severe and lasting negative effect to local people. 6. Conclusions We establish the

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Katherine Foxhall

, it shows how passengers framed their entrance into the tropics by relating weather and climate to formal measurements of latitude and longitude, their own observational activities, and their position in regard to Atlantic coasts and islands. But observation did not remain distinct from experience, and the second section shows how a contemporary medical framework that emphasized the environmental causes of disease—particularly heat, humidity, and calms—ratified physical changes effected by the

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Paul Butke and Scott C. Sheridan

Hopkins International Airport for the period of 1999–2004. This location is the only first-order weather station in the city. The hourly data utilized in this study include temperature and dewpoint. While there are microclimate issues, including the urban heat island effect, the lake breeze, and the fact that indoor conditions can vary significantly from outdoor conditions, it is assumed in this study that the weather data are representative of the entire city of Cleveland. A total of 52 608 h were

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Dorian Speakman

heat waves as a hazard, indicating for many of the sites heat waves are rare, and the risk is perceived as lower than for excess rain. d. Adaptation to high winds All mainland (i.e., on the island of Great Britain itself) sites used either trees (13 in total) and/or hedges (12 in total) as windbreaks. Most of the island-based sites did not, instead using mesh or fishing nets to break up the wind; mesh was also used by four inland sites. Four sites also used raised earth banks to divert the wind

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Zeke Baker

2017 ; Kettle et al. 2017 ; Jeuring et al. 2020 ; Thoman et al. 2020b ; WMO 2021 ). However, as this literature recognizes, practices of prediction may not necessarily connect to the anticipatory practices that characterize marine and coastal communities. This paper presents analysis rooted in qualitative fieldwork primarily in two Bering Sea communities (Unalaska and Saint Paul Island) and among National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters in the region. By understanding practices of

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Margaret V. du Bray, Amber Wutich, and Alexandra Brewis

2007 ). Because this is a coastal area that is already biophysically vulnerable to the effects of tropical storms and hurricanes, it is expected that climate change will intensify this vulnerability and increase the likelihood of coastal erosion, changes in ocean acidification, and sea level rise ( IPCC 2007 ). b. Alaska Kodiak Island is in southern Alaska, separated from mainland Alaska by the Shelikof Strait. The town of Kodiak is the main town of seven rural villages on the island. The town

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David M. Schultz and Vladimir Janković

. Fortunately, such steps taken to protect society from the weather can protect the planet as well. Whether through improving weather forecasts, increasing preparedness, or building better infrastructure, these steps can increase resilience and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. For example, greening neighborhoods or painting roofs lighter colors will both reduce the urban heat island effect and reduce carbon dioxide emissions through reduced air-conditioning costs. For a second example, making cities more

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Detlef Jahn

. Part 4 conducts a statistical analysis in order to estimate the impact of climate and weather conditions on atmospheric emissions along the lines of the above outlined hypothesis. 2. Toward an index of the heating degrees for 21 OECD countries from 1960 to 2005 Heating degrees are quantitative indices designed to reflect the energy needed to heat a home or business to a comfortable temperature. These indices are derived from regular temperature observations and the heating requirements at a

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Yu-Wen Su

earliest and increase the probability of extreme weather, especially for the extreme heat in inhabited regions. Extreme high temperatures (EHT) will not only increase the risk of heat-related illness but also strain the electricity grid. Since the extreme weather seems to be irreversible, adapting to it is crucial and urgent. In Taiwan, the number of days with maximum temperature above 36°C rose form 15 days in 2010 to 38 days in 2018, based on the CWB. Since 2018, a heat warning is issued by the CWB

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