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Stephen M. Strader and Walker S. Ashley

mortality rate, compared to Alabama ( Ashley 2007 ; Ashley and Strader 2016 ). Because both states have similar tornado risk ( Ashley and Strader 2016 ), the disparity between Alabama and Kansas tornado mortality may be attributed to the differences between the central Plains’ and Southeast’s underlying land-use patterns, socioeconomic and demographic 3 vulnerabilities, and built-environment characteristics ( Ashley 2007 ; Simmons and Sutter 2011 ; Ashley and Strader 2016 ; Strader et al. 2016

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Ákos Malatinszky

) to identify themes. Reported features were divided onto those that are linked directly to weather and climate and those that result from nonclimatic pressures (e.g., land use). 3. Results The main themes and concepts that were identified through data analysis are negative impacts resulting from extreme floods, droughts, and heat waves, adverse conditions for livestock, decreased quantity and quality of hay, winter shortage of green fodder, increased water demand, shifting grazing season

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Rachel E. Schattman, Stephanie E. Hurley, Holly L. Greenleaf, Meredith T. Niles, and Martha Caswell

planning ( Lange et al. 2008 ; Lewis et al. 2012 ; Middel et al. 2009 ; Visscher et al. 2016 ). They have also been used for depiction of forest and parks management options ( Bettigole et al. 2014 ; Junker and Buchecker 2008 ; Lange 2011 ). An emerging body of scholarship in recent years has applied PVZs in the context of agricultural land management. For example, Warren-Kretzschmar and Von Haaren (2014) report on the use of simulated PVZs in participatory planning processes at the farm scale

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Linda Stalker Prokopy, Tonya Haigh, Amber Saylor Mase, Jim Angel, Chad Hart, Cody Knutson, Maria Carmen Lemos, Yun-Jia Lo, Jean McGuire, Lois Wright Morton, Jennifer Perron, Dennis Todey, and Melissa Widhalm

agriculture is an intensive operation that combines simultaneous and staged decisions, by season and across multiple years, about a large number of issues, including crop and seed selection, nutrient inputs (rate, timing, method, type), planting and harvesting timing and processes, crop insurance, equipment purchases, crop protection needs, and land management practices. Climate and weather information may impact agricultural decisions at multiple time scales. Farmers make short-term, operational

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Mustafa Hakkı Aydoğdu, Mehmet Reşit Sevinç, and Mehmet Cançelik

and third in Turkey in terms of agricultural potential. Şanlıurfa has an area of 1.06 million ha, the amount of irrigable area is 941 000 ha, and the economically irrigable area is 764 800 ha ( KKA 2021 ). As of the end of 2019, irrigated agriculture has been conducted on an area of 481 800 ha ( Turkey Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry 2020 ), which was 45.5% of the total land. In Şanlıurfa, 791 000 ha is used for cereals and other row crops, 20 200 ha for vegetables, and 157 400 ha for fruit

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Kirsti Jylhä, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Kimmo Ruosteenoja, Hanna Niemi-Hugaerts, Krista Keisu, and Juha A. Karhu

1. Introduction During the twentieth century, from 1901 to 2000, the average surface air temperature in European land areas increased by 0.8 ± 0.3°C ( Luterbacher et al. 2004 ), alongside a global mean warming of 0.74° ± 0.18°C from 1906 to 2006 ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). At the same time, the most extreme climatic zones of the earth in the widely used Köppen classification system showed statistically significant shifts: the global areas covered by tropical climate expanded, whereas the tundra

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Susmita Mitra, Pradeep K. Mehta, and Sudipta Kumar Mishra

10 years from 2006 to 2016 has been captured by plotting groundwater levels in the region over the period using the geographical information system (GIS) tool. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative tools to collect primary data. In India, the term “farmer” is not very clearly defined. Since adaptation measures are generally adopted by farmers who have their land, therefore, we purposely surveyed those farmers only. According to Government of Haryana (2019) , there are around 76

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Kurt B. Waldman, Noemi Vergopolan, Shahzeen Z. Attari, Justin Sheffield, Lyndon D. Estes, Kelly K. Caylor, and Tom P. Evans

rain onset in the previous four seasons and approximately a decade ago [see the methods section ( section 2 ) for more detail]. Rainfall data are at 5-km daily resolution from the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) dataset ( Funk et al. 2015 ). Soil moisture estimates are at a 1-km daily resolution estimated using HydroBlocks, a hyper-resolution, physically based land surface model ( Chaney et al. 2016 ). We translated farmer heuristics into biophysical metrics that

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Samuel J. Childs, Russ S. Schumacher, and Stephen M. Strader

; Nakićenović and Swart 2000 ), Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS; U.S. EPA 2016 ), and SSPs ( O’Neill et al. 2013 ). The five SSPs are based on national-level projections of various sectors such as economics, education, technology, and immigration, and are meant to provide a measure of how a society will be able to adapt to and mitigate the influences of a changing climate ( Jones and O’Neill 2013 , 2016 ). Thus, the SSPs have gained a particular following in natural hazards research ( Ebi

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Juan Declet-Barreto, Kim Knowlton, G. Darrel Jenerette, and Alexander Buyantuev

covers are known to be responsible for the UHI microclimatic signature of cities ( Oke 1997 ; Arnfield 2003 ; Li and Bou-Zeid 2013 ). Although the classic UHI signature is an observable temperature gradient between the urban built environment and surrounding rural areas ( Balling and Brazel 1987 ), UHI magnitudes within cities show significant spatial heterogeneity and are driven by land use/land cover and density of the built environment ( Ruddell et al. 2010 ). The sensitivity of populations to

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