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Miguel A. C. Teixeira

), much faster variations, proportional to | z | −2 or | z | −4 , have been inferred from ocean turbulence measurements ( Gargett 1989 ; Terray et al. 1996 ). Gargett (1989) suggested that the two most probable causes for this dissipation enhancement near the surface are wave breaking and Langmuir circulations, but the second possibility has not been explored in detail. The simplest explanation for the | z | −4 power law displayed by the dissipation rate draws an analogy between wave breaking and

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S. A. Thorpe, M. S. Cure, A. Graham, and A. J. Hall

OCTOBER 1994 THORPE ET AL. 1273Sonar Observations of Langmuir Circulation and Estimation of Dispersion of Floating Particles S. A. THORPE, M. S. CURE,* AND A. GRAHAMDepartment of Oceanography, University of ~outhampton, Southampton, United Kingdom A. J. HALLInstitute of Oceanographic Sciences Deacon Laboratory, Wormley, Godalming, Surrey, United

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Stephen M. Cox and Sidney Leibovich

1330 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUI~23Langmuir Circulations in a Surface Layer Bounded by a Strong Thermocline STEPHEN M. COX* AND SIDNEY LEIBOVICHSibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York(Manuscript received 13 December 1991, in final form 2 July 1992)ABSTRACT Langmuir circulations reside in, and are responsible in part for the existence and maintenance of, the

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Ann E. Gargett and Dana K. Savidge

et al. 2010 ; Liu et al. 2018 ; Wang et al. 2018 ) suggest that the presence of Langmuir circulations (LC) augments shear-generated mixing. Most in-water observations of hurricane effects on the ocean are also from the deep ocean ( D’Asaro 2003 ; Sanford et al. 2011 ; Rabe et al. 2015 ). However many hurricanes approach land over broad shallow shelves, where storm response may differ as a result of the presence and effects of full-depth Langmuir circulations, which were first discovered in

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Rachel Walker, Andrés E. Tejada-Martínez, and Chester E. Grosch

characterization by Langmuir in 1938, Langmuir turbulence has become widely acknowledged as one of the key contributors to vertical mixing in the upper ocean. This turbulence is commonly observed in the form of Langmuir circulation (LC), which consists of pairs of parallel, counterrotating vortices approximately aligned in the direction of the wind and is generated by the interaction of the wind-driven shear current and the surface gravity wave–driven Stokes drift. This interaction is capable of tilting

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James C. McWilliams, Edward Huckle, Jun-Hong Liang, and Peter P. Sullivan

al. 2003 ). The same winds that cause the Ekman layer also cause surface gravity waves, either in local equilibrium with the wind or in disequilibrium due to a transient history or remote propagation. The combination of wind and waves has a significant impact on the (wavy) Ekman layer, most importantly through the generation of turbulent Langmuir circulations (LCs) and modification of the Coriolis force through the wave-averaged Stokes drift profile u st ( z ) acting as “vortex forces

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S. A. Thorpe

APRIL I995 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 685On the Meandering and Dispersion of a Plume of Floating Particles Caused by Langmuir Circulation and a Mean Current S. A. THORPEDepartment of Oceanography, The University, Southampton, United Kingdom23 February 1994 and 20 June 1994ABSTRACT Simple analytical models are devised to describe the dispersion of a plume of buoyant material from a

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Yign Noh, Gahyun Goh, and Siegfried Raasch

1. Introduction Langmuir circulation (LC), which appears in the form of an array of alternating horizontal roll vortices with axes aligned roughly with the wind, represents one of the most important characteristics of the ocean mixed layer (see, e.g., Leibovich 1983 ; Smith 2001 ; Thorpe 2004 ). The prevailing theory of LC is that of Craik and Leibovich (1976) , which describes the formation of LC in terms of instability brought on by the interaction of the Stokes drift with the wind

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Leonel Romero, J. Carter Ohlmann, Enric Pallàs-Sanz, Nicholas M. Statom, Paula Pérez-Brunius, and Stéphane Maritorena

1. Introduction Small-scale physical oceanographic processes at scales of O (100) m or smaller are important for the transport and dispersion of tracers in the upper ocean. These include submesoscale processes such as fronts, filaments, and eddies, Langmuir circulation, wind-driven shear, and turbulence. In coastal regions, tidal inlets and rivers can also play an important role for the transport and dispersion of tracers over the shelf (e.g., Whilden et al. 2014 ; Androulidakis et al. 2018

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Miguel A. C. Teixeira

wave amplitude is so small as to be barely measurable) is ignored. The experiments with mechanical waves are excluded from this comparison because the assumption of the model that and have the same sign may not be strictly satisfied. The possibility that and have opposite signs has been demonstrated by Pearson (2018) , for situations with weak (or no) wind, when turbulence exists beneath a wave field. This leads to a suppression of the instability to Langmuir circulations [which requires

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