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Yalin Fan, Shian-Jiann Lin, Isaac M. Held, Zhitao Yu, and Hendrik L. Tolman

. Hasselmann , S. Hasselmann , and P. A. E. M. Janssen , 1994 : Dynamics and Modeling of Ocean Waves . Cambridge University Press, 520 pp . Large , W. G. , and S. Pond , 1981 : Open ocean momentum flux measurements in moderate to strong winds . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 11 , 324 – 336 . Li , M. , and C. Garrett , 1997 : Mixed-layer deepening due to Langmuir circulation . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 27 , 121 – 132 . Lin , S.-J. , 2004 : A “vertically Lagrangian” finite-volume dynamical core

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Li Xu, Qing Zhu, William J. Riley, Yang Chen, Hailong Wang, Po-Lun Ma, and James T. Randerson

, which, in turn, may reduce convection and precipitation ( Ackerman et al. 2000 ; Andreae and Rosenfeld 2008 ). In the southern Amazon, fire-emitted aerosols have been found to drive increases in stratification, enhance the dry season circulation pattern, and lengthen the dry season ( Zhang et al. 2009 ). Hodnebrog et al. (2016) found that a main driver of the observed decline in dry season precipitation in Southern Hemisphere Africa originated from a positive trend in fire emissions. Baro et al

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Sulagna Ray, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Stephen M. Griffies, and Fanrong Zeng

of global climate and variability including ENSO ( Wittenberg 2002 ; Vecchi and Wittenberg 2010 ; Collins et al. 2010 ; Wittenberg 2015 ; Graham et al. 2017 ; Chen et al. 2017 ; Timmermann et al. 2018 ). The tropical Pacific upper ocean represents a vast heat reservoir that plays a central role in tropical climate variations. Within the top few tens of meters of the tropical Pacific Ocean, intermittent stirring and mixing—arising from wave-, Langmuir-, and shear-driven turbulence, and

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