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Jerome A. Smith

horizontally scanning Doppler acoustictechnique is described and investigated for use nearshore. This approach has proven useful in the study ofwaves and Langmuir circulation in the open ocean(e.g., Smith 1992). In this approach, vertically fanshaped beams intersect the surface along lines up to akilometer long (depending on the acoustic frequencyused). As each transmitted "ping" scans along a line,the backsea~ter is processed to yield contiguous estimates of the rangewise component of velocity. An

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Brian D. Scannell
,
Tom P. Rippeth
,
John H. Simpson
,
Jeff A. Polton
, and
Joanne E. Hopkins

; Calvert and Siddorn 2013 ). Turbulence in the OSBL is widely recognized as being produced by wind-driven surface shear stress, destabilizing surface buoyancy fluxes and (in shelf seas) tidal current shear at the bottom boundary (e.g., Brainerd and Gregg 1993 ; Simpson 1981 ). Other surface-driven processes include breaking waves (e.g., Agrawal et al. 1992 ; Terray et al. 1996 ), Langmuir circulation (e.g., Thorpe 2004 ), submesoscale eddies (e.g., Taylor 2016 ), and swell waves (e.g., Wu et al

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Lichuan Wu
,
David Sproson
,
Erik Sahlée
, and
Anna Rutgersson

a wave model to consider the impact of the wave-induced stress. Later, atmosphere–wave coupled models were developed to investigate the influence of wave-induced stress on climate simulations and mesoscale weather systems ( Doyle 1995 , 2002 ; Lee et al. 2004 ; Wen et al. 2006 ; Zhang et al. 2009 ). Surface waves not only impact the atmosphere but also the upper-ocean mixing through wave breaking, Stokes drift interaction with the Coriolis force, Langmuir circulation, and stirring by

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Lena M. Schulze Chretien
and
Kevin Speer

, and winds, as simulated using a finite volume coastal ocean model . J. Geophys. Res. , 111 , C01005 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003067 . Zedel , L. , and D. Farmer , 1991 : Organized structures in subsurface bubble clouds: Langmuir circulation in the open ocean . J. Geophys. Res. , 96 , 8889 – 8900 , https://doi.org/10.1029/91JC00189 . 10.1029/91JC00189

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Raul Vicen-Bueno
,
Jochen Horstmann
,
Eric Terril
,
Tony de Paolo
, and
Jens Dannenberg

groups ( Dankert et al. 2003a ) and to detect ships ( Vicen-Bueno et al. 2011a ). Marine radars are also useful for estimating wind speed and direction ( Dankert et al. 2003b ; Dankert and Horstmann 2007 ). In these two works, wind directions were extracted from wind-induced streaks, which are visible in radar images integrated over time. Up to the present, the source of the wind-induced streaks visible in radar images has been under discussion. The most likely sources are the Langmuir circulation

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Chris Roman
and
Dave Hebert

turbulent dissipation rates in the deep ocean have shown enhanced mixing several hundred meters above rough topography ( Polzin et al. 1997 ). They concluded that such patterns in vertical mixing imply that abyssal circulations have complex spatial structures that are linked to the underlying bathymetry. Using traditional microstructure instruments to measure turbulent dissipation rates in the deep ocean is very difficult and time consuming because it requires using a free-fall profiler over the full

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Fabrice Veron
and
W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction The surface-wave zone or upper surface mixed layer of the ocean has received considerable attention in recent years. This is partly a result of the realization that wave breaking ( Thorpe 1993 ; Melville 1994 ; Anis and Moum 1995 ) and perhaps Langmuir circulations ( Skyllingstad and Denbo 1995 ; McWilliams et al. 1997 ; Melville et al. 1998 ) may lead to enhanced dissipation and significant departures from the classical “law-of-the-wall” description of the surface layer

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Benjamin D. Reineman
,
Luc Lenain
,
Nicholas M. Statom
, and
W. Kendall Melville

-wind structures associated with Langmuir circulations. In convergence zones, water in the thin surface thermal boundary layer has had more exposure to the atmosphere, and appears cooler in the thermal imagery ( Marmorino et al. 2005 ). Fig . 20. Sample georeferenced infrared image obtained with the ScanEagle Imaging payload during flights over the Potomac River on 12 Apr 2012 from an altitude of 193 m AGL. Note the along-wind structures with a persistent 4–6-m spacing, indicative of Langmuir-type cells. Water

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An-Zhou Cao
,
Hui Chen
,
Wei Fan
,
Hai-Lun He
,
Jin-Bao Song
, and
Ji-Cai Zhang

1. Introduction Tides and tidal currents are basic motions in the ocean and play an important role in the studies of other ocean dynamics, such as storm surges, internal tides, and circulations ( Munk 1997 ; Xu et al. 2016 ; Cao et al. 2017 ). In continental shelf areas, strong tidal currents can cause intense shear near the seafloor, which finally contribute to intense turbulent mixing ( Heathershaw 1979 ; Liu and Wei 2007 ; Lozovatsky et al. 2008 ; Yoshikawa et al. 2010 ). In boundary

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Jerome A. Smith

. Res. , 103C , 18357 – 18379 . Smith, J. A. , 1993 : Performance of a horizontally scanning Doppler sonar near shore. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 10 , 752 – 763 . 10.1175/1520-0426(1993)010<0752:POAHSD>2.0.CO;2 Smith, J. A. , . 1998 : Evolution of Langmuir circulation during a storm. J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 12649 – 12668 . 10.1029/97JC03611 Smith, J. A. , . 2001 : Continuous time–space sampling of surface currents using sound. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., submitted . Smith

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