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Erin Dougherty, Erin Sherman, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

1. Introduction The duality of California’s Mediterranean climate from wet winters to dry summers poses a challenge in managing water resources, especially when combined with an ever-growing population ( Dettinger et al. 2011 ). While the wet winters in California provide most of the state’s water resources, they can also lead to floods and natural disasters. For example, the Oroville Dam catastrophe in February 2017 was caused by anomalous winter precipitation, near-saturated soils, and

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R. Garreaud

, Academic Press, 573 pp. Huffman, G. J. , and Coauthors , 2007 : The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis: Quasi-global, multi-year, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scale . J. Hydrometeor. , 8 , 38 – 55 . Krichak, S. , Breitgand J. , and Feldstein S. , 2012 : A conceptual model for the identification of active Red Sea trough synoptic events over the southeastern Mediterranean . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 51 , 962 – 971 . Lavers, D. A. , Allan R. P. , Wood E

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Junxia Li, Xueping Bai, Yuting Jin, Fangbo Song, Zhenju Chen, Lixin Cai, Fenghua Zou, Mengzhu Jiang, Ruixin Yun, and Zhaoyang Lv

century compared with the three previous centuries ( Urrutia et al. 2011 ); the 400-yr streamflow reconstructions of the Maule, Biobío, and Puelo Rivers showed an increase in the frequency of extreme high and low flow events in the twentieth century in the Chilean temperate Mediterranean climate transition ( Muñoz et al. 2016 ); in northern Argentina, the Río Bermejo flow reconstruction suggested an increase in extreme streamflow events since 1960 compared with the past 300 years ( Ferrero et al. 2015

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Muattar Saydi, Guoping Tang, Yan Qin, Hong Fang, and Xiaohua Chen

. 2013 ), the changes in location and intensity of the Siberia high ( Xu et al. 2010 ), and variation of evaporation in upwind lakes (e.g., the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean) ( Dai et al. 2007 ; Huang et al. 2013 ) likely have their contribution in the variations of winter snowfall in the arid Central Asia. Fig . 11. Trend and magnitude of change in precipitation during the (a) winter, (b) summer, (c) fall, and (d) spring across Xinjiang during the last ~6 decades. As shown in Fig. 12a , winter

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Dashan Wang, Xianwei Wang, Lin Liu, Dagang Wang, and Zhenzhong Zeng

Mountains) distributes in the upwind direction ( Fig. S4 ). The combination of large-scale forcing such as the plum rainfall, land–sea circulation and the regional topography are considered as the dominant factors affecting the precipitation clustering in this region ( Fu et al. 2019 ). Although there are clustered patterns of precipitation extremes, the urban signatures are not evident in the YRD ( Figs. 5d–f ). In the following session, we present two typical regions of Beijing and PRD, where urban

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Gonzalo Leonardini, François Anctil, Vincent Vionnet, Maria Abrahamowicz, Daniel F. Nadeau, and Vincent Fortin

platform (GEM-Hydro) to produce runoff simulations in the Lake Ontario basin ( Gaborit et al. 2017 ) and hindcasts of the major June 2013 flood in Alberta (Canada) ( Vionnet et al. 2020 ). More recently, point-scale evaluations showed comparable results relative to field observations and more complex models for Mediterranean and temperate climates in the United States ( Maheu et al. 2018 ). These evaluations also yielded accurate results for energy fluxes and soil moisture in arid, Mediterranean, and

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R. Rosolem, W. J. Shuttleworth, M. Zreda, T. E. Franz, X. Zeng, and S. A. Kurc

in the 8–13 μ m spectral region for different atmospheric conditions . Pure Appl. Geophys. , 116 , 1063 – 1076 . Tomasi, C. , 1984 : Vertical distribution features of atmospheric water vapor in the Mediterranean, Red Sea and Indian Ocean . J. Geophys. Res. , 89 , 2563 – 2566 . Tomasi, C. , and Paccagnella T. , 1988 : Vertical distribution features of atmospheric water vapour in the Po Valley area. Pure Appl. Geophys., 127, 93–115. Trenberth, K. E. , 1998 : Atmospheric moisture

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Hisham Eldardiry and Faisal Hossain

capital Khartoum and the Nile River then flows north through Sudan and Egypt to drain into the Mediterranean Sea. Fig. 1 . (a) The Nile River basin with the location of HAD and GERD dams. (b) Climatological HAD and GERD inflow (averaged over 37 years 1981–2017) as modeled by the satellite-based framework developed by Eldardiry and Hossain (2019) . The red and green lines represent the HAD target storage and demand used for deriving HAD optimal operation, respectively. (c) The annual GERD inflow

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Fidele Karamage, Yuanbo Liu, and Yongwei Liu

. Annual decrease in runoff due to climate change were detected in three basins, including South Africa–West Coast (Δ R = −0.89% a −1 ), South Africa–South Coast (Δ R = −0.42% a −1 ), and Congo (Δ R = −0.02% a −1 ) ( Fig. 9 ). The Orange, Namibia–Coast, Africa–Red Sea–Gulf of Aden Coast, and Zambezi basins experienced runoff reduction ranging from −0.15% to −1.88% a −1 ( Fig. 9 ) due to the increase in water withdrawal ranging from 1.80% to 3.23% a −1 ( Table 5 ). River discharge reduction in

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F. Chen, W. T. Crow, L. Ciabatta, P. Filippucci, G. Panegrossi, A. C. Marra, S. Puca, and C. Massari

between H23 and ERA5 are seen around the northern coast of the Black Sea. More consistent negative ECC is found between ERA5 and SM2R across a broad swath of eastern Europe and Russia ( Fig. 3c ). Fig . 3. The QC-derived estimates of ECC (a) between the H23 and ERA5, (b) between the H23 and SM2R, and (c) between the ERA5 and SM2R daily rainfall products. The weak ECC found between H23 and both SM2R ( Fig. 3a ) and ERA5 ( Fig. 3b ) is generally consistent with our earlier assumption that error in H23

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