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Randall J. Alliss
,
Sethu Raman
, and
Simon W. Chang

DECEMBER 1992 ALLISS ET AL. 2723Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) Observations of Hurricane Hugo (1989) RANDALL J. ALLISS AND SETHU RAMANDepartment of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina SIMON W. CHANGNaval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.(Manuscript received 21 November 1991, in final form 25 March

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Abram R. Jacobson
,
William Boeck
, and
Christopher Jeffery

: Numerical Recipes in C . ++. Cambridge University Press, 1032 pp . Prigent , C. , J. R. Pardo , M. I. Mishchenko , and W. B. Rossow , 2001 : Microwave polarized signatures generated within cloud systems: Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) observations interpreted with radiative transfer simulations. J. Geophys. Res. , 106 , 28243 – 28258 . Coauthors , 1999 : A distinct class of isolated intracloud lightning discharges and their associated radio emissions. J. Geophys. Res

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Filipe Aires
,
Francis Marquisseau
,
Catherine Prigent
, and
Geneviève Sèze

Polarization (CALIOP) instrument lidar on board the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) platform of the A-Train constellation have been used to evaluate the VIS and IR passive measurements algorithms ( Holz et al. 2008 ; Sèze et al. 2009 ). Microwave observations are less sensitive to thin clouds than visible or infrared measurements. However, contrarily to visible and infrared observations, which only sense radiation scattered or emitted from the top of the clouds

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John D. Frye
and
Thomas L. Mote

, 1673 – 1688 . Bindlish , R. , T. J. Jackson , E. Wood , H. Gao , P. Starks , D. Bosch , and V. Lakshmi , 2003 : Soil moisture estimates from TRMM microwave imager observations over the southern United States. Remote

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Taiga Tsukada
and
Takeshi Horinouchi

et al. (2007) was used. Highly accurate RMW estimates are obtained from wind observations in TCs inner-core region. These observations are mainly obtained by aircraft or low Earth orbit satellites. While reliable in situ observations are possible using aircraft, operational aircraft observations are conducted only in the North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific basins. Microwave radiometers and scatterometers on board low Earth orbit satellites can be used to retrieve the sea surface winds

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Yanqiu Zhu
,
Emily Liu
,
Rahul Mahajan
,
Catherine Thomas
,
David Groff
,
Paul Van Delst
,
Andrew Collard
,
Daryl Kleist
,
Russ Treadon
, and
John C. Derber

regions. In the early studies, cloudy radiance data were usually preprocessed through a one-dimensional variational data assimilation (1DVAR) scheme to retrieve atmospheric properties before these radiances were assimilated into a data assimilation system. For example, in the assimilation of cloud- and precipitation-affected Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) radiance observations, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) derived total column water vapor (TCWV) from the 1

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Daniel S. Harnos
and
Stephen W. Nesbitt

numerous prior studies that show stratiform precipitation having typical a 20-dB Z height of 5–8 km within TCs (e.g., Black et al. 1994 , 1996 , 2002 ; Hence and Houze 2011 ; Didlake and Houze 2013 ). Thus, we seek to clarify the roles of cloud and precipitation within the TC inner-core using passive microwave observations and process-based radiative transfer modeling. This article seeks to do the following: provide an overview of cloud and physical process influences on PM s, investigate the

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Amanda Richter
and
Timothy J. Lang

is to assess observations, made by active and passive microwave instruments used in the IMPACTS field campaign, that characterize cloud and precipitation features. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core observatory is one of the most well-known precipitation satellites today. It was engineered to be the centerpiece of a constellation of precipitation satellites, improving upon predecessor satellites with the intent to advance knowledge regarding storm structure, precipitation

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Jonathan Zawislak

coverage was far exceeded by the other precipitation types they defined. Although it does not extend over the entire troposphere, they surmise that cumulus congestus favors a transition to deep convection as midlevel congestus clouds moisten the midtroposphere through detrainment ( Wang 2014 ). The present study will complement Fritz et al. (2016) by extending the multiyear analysis to proxies from passive microwave (PMW) satellite data, and it will go further by comparing precipitation properties of

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Michael S. Fischer
,
Brian H. Tang
,
Kristen L. Corbosiero
, and
Christopher M. Rozoff

://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-15-0032.1 . 10.1175/WAF-D-15-0032.1 Kieper , M. E. , and H. Jiang , 2012 : Predicting tropical cyclone rapid intensification using the 37 GHz ring pattern identified from passive microwave measurements . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 39 , L13804 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052115 . 10.1029/2012GL052115 Knapp , K. R. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Globally gridded satellite observations for climate studies . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 92 , 893 – 907 , https://doi.org/10

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