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L. Mahrt, Dean Vickers, William M. Drennan, Hans C. Graber, and Timothy L. Crawford

; Mahrt 1998 and Massman 2000 ). 2. The data For aircraft data, the errors due to vertical platform displacement are most easily examined over water, where variations of surface elevation do not complicate the definition of height above ground. This study analyzes eddy correlation data collected from the LongEZ research aircraft over Atlantic coastal water off the Outer Banks near Duck, North Carolina, during the Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) in March 1999 and November–December 1999 ( Crescenti

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M. A. Kallistratova

1. Introduction The results of the study of propagation and scattering waves in turbulent media are the base of the modern methods of remote sounding of the natural habitat. Sound wave is an especially attractive tool in remote ground-based investigation of the atmospheric turbulence because of the strong dependence of sound speed on the air temperature and wind velocity. The development of the acoustic methods of atmospheric research essentially depends on achievements in theoretical and

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Xingru Feng, Junchuan Sun, Dezhou Yang, Baoshu Yin, Guandong Gao, and Weiqi Wan

increased bottom roughness of the atmosphere over the ocean. Correspondingly, the Mellor–Yamada–Janjić scheme (MYJ) is selected for the planetary boundary layer scheme. Table 1. Physical parameterizations used in the WRF Model. 2) Wave model The Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model was adopted as the wave component in the COAWST model. SWAN is a third-generation spectral wave model designed for shallow water areas ( Booij et al. 1999 ). In this study, the grid of SWAN is the same as that of WRF. The

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B. L. Weber, D. B. Wuertz, D. C. Law, A. S. Frisch, and J. M. Brown

almost 2 for the 10-km wave, and it isabout 0.25 for the 100-km wave. Only long-wavelength,planetary-scale waves have negligible residuals. Note that the operation of time averaging commuteswith the operation to remove vertical motion when allmeasurements during the hour are included. Hence,either the time-filter coefficient (4) or the spatial coefficient (9) must be small in order to remove the effectsof vertical motion on the horizontal wind componentestimates. Otherwise, the deleterious effects

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Wenshou Tian, Douglas J. Parker, Stephen Mobbs, Martin Hill, Charles A. D. Kilburn, and Darcy Ladd

convective rolls in the planetary boundary layer. The roll information obtained from high-frequency pressure time series is useful for an integrated study of convective rolls. Wavelet analysis can separate wavelike signals, but it is hard to confirm their physical nature. It is extremely difficult to discriminate between convective rolls and internal gravity waves, as well as the downwind drifting of turbulent eddies. A beam-steering diagram is found to be helpful for understanding the nature of coherent

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Martin Flügge, Mostafa Bakhoday Paskyabi, Joachim Reuder, James B. Edson, and Albert J. Plueddemann

exposure of the sensors, the measurements from ships and other moving platforms are contaminated by the angular and translational velocities of the platform caused by wave-induced motion. This contamination must be removed before computation of the fluxes. The motion-correction procedure involves the application of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that contains high-precision acceleration and angular rate sensors. The processed signals of these sensors are used to determine the platform’s attitude

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R. D. Montoya and A. F. Osorio

for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40), ERA-40/second-generation Ocean Data Gathering Program (ODGP2); Swail and Cox (2000) wave reanalysis [Atmospheric Environment Service 40-yr North Atlantic wind and wave reanalysis (AES40)]; Cox and Swail (2001) global wave reanalysis; planetary wave (PWA) reanalysis; National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis} in various regions of the world. For tropical locations, such

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Heiko Dankert and Jochen Horstmann

, 239–292 . Drennan, W. , Graber H. , Hauser D. , and Quentin C. , 2003 : On the wave age dependence of wind stress over pure wind seas. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 . 8062, doi:10.1029/2000JC000715 . Drobinski, P. , and Foster R. , 2003 : On the origin of near-surface streaks in the neutrally-stratified planetary boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 108 , 247 – 256 . 10.1023/A:1024100125735 Geenaert, G. , 1990 : Measurements of the angle between the wind stress vector in the

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Ralph D. Lorenz

appropriate to use sensors directly sensitive to motion, such as accelerometers or Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) gyros (also now very compact, low power, and easy to interface). HH06 make an important contribution in comparing the history of the attitude motion to independent measurements of the atmospheric motions. This is an important problem in planetary exploration, where probes descending by parachutes through the atmospheres of Venus, Jupiter, or Titan have experienced motions (e

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Rebecca A. Woodgate and Peter D. Killworth

turn, yield wave speeds and hence length scales: the width of a Kelvin wave—the deformation radius—is determined by the wave speed of inertia–gravity waves; the spinup of the western boundary layer is determined by the speed of long planetary waves; and so on. Such frequencies are derivable for models—at least for linear dynamics—and may be observable for models. However, a continuously assimilated model does not obey the same dynamics as the unassimilated underlying model. In the limit of very

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