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R. Alkama, B. Decharme, H. Douville, M. Becker, A. Cazenave, J. Sheffield, A. Voldoire, S. Tyteca, and P. Le Moigne

largest rivers, and climate at least on the regional scale ( Gedney et al. 2000 ; Douville et al. 2000a , b ; Molod et al. 2004 ; Lawrence and Slater 2007 ; Alkama et al. 2008 ). The simulation of these processes mainly depends on the representation of the continental part of the global hydrological cycle in continental hydrologic systems (CHSs). Today, CHSs are composed of land surface models (LSMs), which provide realistic lower boundary conditions of temperature and moisture in atmospheric

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B. Decharme, R. Alkama, H. Douville, M. Becker, and A. Cazenave

1. Introduction Continental hydrological systems (CHSs), composed of land surface models (LSMs) and river routing models (RRMs), provide lower boundary conditions on temperature and moisture in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) and simulate river discharges over the entire globe. RRMs have been introduced into earth system models (ESMs) to convert the runoff simulated by LSMs into river discharge to transfer the continental freshwater into the oceans and then to close the global

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Jhan Carlo Espinoza, Josyane Ronchail, Frédéric Frappart, Waldo Lavado, William Santini, and Jean Loup Guyot

the end of the 1980s in the Amazon basin, which particularly affects the Andean rivers ( Espinoza et al. 2009 ). Among them, the Amazonas River, the main western tributary of the Amazon, covers a 750 000 km 2 watershed at Tamshiyacu station ( Figs. 1a,b ). At this station, the long-term mean discharge is 32 000 m 3 s −1 , which represents about 16% of the Amazon runoff ( Espinoza et al. 2009 ). In the Amazonas River, severe droughts occurred in 1995, 1998, 2005, and 2010 austral winter and

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Hui Fan and Daming He

1. Introduction Ongoing global climatic change is expected to enhance the global hydrologic cycle, which will affect streamflow and water availability and thereby may disturb the discharge regime of rivers ( Barnett et al. 2005 ; Huntington 2006 ; IPCC 2007 ; Oki and Kanae 2006 ). To provide further evidence for warming-induced hydrological cycle intensification, there has been increasing interest in the linkage of climatic variability/change to hydrological processes and water resources

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Chuanhao Wu, Guoru Huang, Haijun Yu, Zhijing Chen, and Jingguang Ma

Province, south China. It is an important part of the flood control engineering of the Beijiang River basin and plays an important role in flood control for the city of Guangzhou and other areas located in the downstream area of the Beijiang River basin. Because of the effect of climate warming, extreme rainfall events have recently been occurring more frequently in the upstream area of the Beijiang River basin ( Wu et al. 2014 ), causing significant damage to property and affecting the operation of

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Thomas C. Pagano, Andrew W. Wood, Maria-Helena Ramos, Hannah L. Cloke, Florian Pappenberger, Martyn P. Clark, Michael Cranston, Dmitri Kavetski, Thibault Mathevet, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Jan S. Verkade

countries is staggering, with disasters routinely displacing from tens to hundreds of thousands of people; for example, nearly 2000 people were dead or missing after the Philippines typhoon of 2012, with evacuations exceeding 780 000 people. Droughts can be just as damaging, with the U.S. drought of 2012 costing nearly $80 billion (U.S. dollars). Some of these consequences are avoidable through advance warning, emergency response, and other preparations; thus, operational river forecasters can help

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E. A. Zakharova, A. V. Kouraev, S. Biancamaria, M. V. Kolmakova, N. M. Mognard, V. A. Zemtsov, S. N. Kirpotin, and B. Decharme

1. Introduction High-latitude terrestrial ecosystems respond to global climate changes through exchange of water, energy, and gases with the atmosphere and through freshwater input to the Arctic Ocean. Climatic changes are already affecting boreal river systems through rising air temperature and precipitation ( Zakharova et al. 2009b ), thawing of permafrost ( Zhang et al. 2003 ), disappearing lakes ( Smith et al. 2005 ), and increase in river runoff ( Grippa et al. 2007 ; Déry et al. 2009

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Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Matthew Rodell, and Rolf H. Reichle

1. Introduction Since its launch in March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite system has provided unprecedented measurements of column-integrated terrestrial water storage (TWS) for the entire globe. These measurements have been applied in novel investigations of river discharge ( Syed et al. 2005 ), regional evapotranspiration ( Rodell et al. 2004a ; Swenson and Wahr 2006a ), climate and teleconnections ( Andersen et al. 2005 ; Crowley et al. 2006 ), and the

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Hisham Eldardiry and Faisal Hossain

be useful for improving reservoir operations (e.g., Hamlet et al. 2002 ; Nayak et al. 2018 ; Giuliani et al. 2019 ; Ahmad and Hossain 2020 ). Using retrospective streamflow forecasts in operating reservoirs in the Columbia River, Hamlet et al. (2002) showed that long-lead streamflow forecasts can be effectively utilized to obtain increased annual average hydropower. During extreme conditions of droughts and floods, forecasting reservoir inflow informs dam operators how to efficiently manage

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Charlotte M. Emery, Sylvain Biancamaria, Aaron Boone, Pierre-André Garambois, Sophie Ricci, Mélanie C. Rochoux, and Bertrand Decharme

to continental waters. Continental water can be studied at the global scale using land surface models (LSMs) coupled with a river-routing model (RRM). LSMs provide lower boundary conditions to atmospheric general circulation models, while RRMs compute river discharge, which can be potentially used as boundary conditions to ocean general circulation models. Several RRMs have been developed at a global scale ( Vörösmarty et al. 1989 ; Coe 1998 ; Hagemann and Dümenil 1997 ; Oki and Sud 1998

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