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Tianyi Zhang, Xiaomao Lin, Danny H. Rogers, and Freddie R. Lamm

% surface irrigation system and complete adoption of greater-efficiency irrigation systems is probably unrealistic because surface irrigation predominates in some regions for certain crops and for salinity control. Additionally, more advanced irrigation infrastructure often requires a larger investment that cannot be offset by the crop revenue ( Seo et al. 2008 ; Schuck et al. 2005 ). Therefore, we prefer to view this result for the western United States not as predictions of actual adaptation but

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Ruixin Yang, Allison Fairley, and Wonsun Park

generate the SOCV. The source of heat is inflow of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), which indicates a large-scale link between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The SOCV signal generated in the South Atlantic also propagates to the North Atlantic via different processes. Swingedouw et al. (2009) proposed three ways of connections: deep-water adjustment via oceanic waves, salinity anomaly advection, and wind impact on the NADW cell. Each has different response time scales in the model, of

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Scott R. Loarie, David B. Lobell, Gregory P. Asner, and Christopher B. Field

large albedo increase; (iii) the town of San Luis, Argentina; and (iv) a saline lake (Salinas del Bebedero). (e),(f) Quickbird images accessed through Google Earth showing a close up of the recent increase in albedo (ii) resulting from a decrease in vegetative cover likely from grazing. Figure 7. An example of albedo decreases associated with reservoirs in arid regions. Gray areas mask low quality data. (a) Change in albedo in a region of interest near the

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Y. Govender, E. Cuevas, L. D. S. Sternberg, and M. R. Jury

the next sampling period. A subsample of the rainwater samples was tested for salinity using a Brix refractometer at the time of collection. Vacutainers were stored in a refrigerator (4°C) in the laboratory until analysis at the Laboratory of Stable Isotope Ecology in Tropical Ecosystems (University of Miami). A total of 49 rainwater samples were analyzed in triplicate for δ 18 O and δD by mass spectrometry using methods described by Vendramini and Sternberg ( Vendramini and Sternberg 2007

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Gerald V. Frost, Uma S. Bhatt, Matthew J. Macander, Amy S. Hendricks, and M. Torre Jorgenson

-dominated vegetation is adapted to saline conditions and sedimentation provides a source of soil nutrients. We found no clear trend in vegetation cover in coastal plain, although we did observe local mortality of shrubs due to salt-kill, as well as ground subsidence caused by permafrost thaw ( Whitley et al. 2018 ). Reports from YKD elders provide intriguing evidence of vegetation changes both during the intercomparison period, and entirely preceding the satellite record. These reports provide evidence of stress

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Avijit Gangopadhyay, Ayan H. Chaudhuri, and Arnold H. Taylor

the model, including temperature and salinity, are configured for the North Atlantic grid using Levitus climatology. Detailed description of this model, its skill assessment, and relevant results were presented in Chaudhuri et al. (2011a , b) . A major goal of this effort was to study the mean response of the GS to representative low and high NAO condition/forcing. This model was able to realistically reproduce the GS path ( Chaudhuri et al. 2011a ) and was then used to study the impact of

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Forrest M. Hoffman, William W. Hargrove Jr., David J. Erickson III, and Robert J. Oglesby

1. Introduction Understanding the physical environment that affects the life cycles of all plants and animals (including humans) is of paramount importance as natural and anthropogenic environmental changes occur. The environment is characterized by a large number of conditions, including land surface properties (soil type, elevation, rivers and lakes, vegetation, etc.), ocean properties (sea surface temperatures, salinity, circulation patterns, etc.), and atmospheric properties (chemical

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Philip Potter, Navin Ramankutty, Elena M. Bennett, and Simon D. Donner

cumulative gridcell area for harvested grid cells as a percentage of total global gridcell area. Figure 7. Global map of coastal hypoxic areas in relation to N application in fertilizers. Figure 2a is overlain with selected global basins that discharge into saline receiving waters (where nitrogen represents the dominant limiting nutrient) and location of documented hypoxic areas from Diaz and Rosenberg ( Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 ). Table

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

climatological-mean state of 1 January. Present-day oceanic temperature and salinity were used to initialize the ocean model. It is necessary to have the upper ocean reach a reasonable state of equilibrium to investigate interannual climate variability ( Kantha and Clayson 2000 ). In our simulations, the annual-mean SST takes approximately 10 to 20 years to reach equilibrium, which is generally consistent with previous studies ( Abe et al. 2003 ; Wohlfahrt et al. 2004 ; Kitoh 2004 ). Deep soil moisture

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Diandong Ren and Ann Henderson-Sellers

transpiration term. The effects from the soil water content, the ability of the soil to conduct water to the roots, and even the water logging and soil water salinity can be incorporated into ω. The contribution from the vegetation type as well as its developmental stage can be incorporated into R s . The atmospheric demand (e.g., energy supply, vapor pressure deficit, and wind speed), as pioneered by Penman ( Penman 1948 ), can be incorporated into T r . In numerical modeling, K is usually

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