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James C. Stephens and David P. Marshall

1. Introduction A tongue of warm and salty water known as the Mediterranean salinity tongue (MST) is the most prominent feature of the North Atlantic at middepths. It sets the temperature–salinity structure of a large part of the interior ocean in this region. Figure 1 shows salinity on potential density surfaces σ 1 = 31.85 (depth ∼ 600 m at the eastern boundary, the upper limit of the MST) and σ 1 = 32.35 (depth ∼ 1500 m). On σ 1 = 31.85 there is a pronounced northward as well as a

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William J. Emery

MARCa1977 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 293NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEThe Errors Involved in Inferring Salinity from Sound Velocity WILLIAM J. EMERYDepartment of Oceanography, T~xas A(eM University, College Station 77843 12 August 1976 and 6 December 1976ABSTRACT Four empirical equations relating sound velocity, salinity, temperature and pressure are examined todetermine the errors in

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Neill S. Cooper

VOLUME 18 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY MAY 1988The Effect of Salinity on Tropical Ocean Models NEILL S. COOPERThe Hooke Institute for Atmospheric Research, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, UK(Manuscript received 30 June 1987, in final form 23 October 1987)ABSTRACT The effect of horizontal salinity gradients on the tropical ocean cimulation has not previously been

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Jonathan D. Nash and James N. Moum

salt fluxes, this has been a necessary assumption because it has not been possible to directly measure the turbulent flux of salt or the dissipation rate of salinity variance. It is well known that double-diffusive processes transport heat and salt at different rates ( Schmitt 1979 ). The unique dynamics associated with these structures are a direct consequence of the large value of the ratio D T / D S ≃ 100, but only occur when turbulence is weak and for a limited range of dT / dS. Having

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Arnold L. Gordon and Alberto R. Piola

JULY 1983 ARNOLD L. GORDON AND ALBERTO R. PIOLA 1293Atlantic Ocean Upper Layer Salinity Budget~ ARNOLD L. GORDON AND ALBERTO R. PIOLA2Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964(Manuscript received 5 August 1982, in final form 9 March 1983) ABSTRACT Production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) transfers upper-layer thermocline water

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Parker MacCready

1. Introduction Estuarine circulation and salinity patterns are the result of several competing factors: river flow pushes seaward, denser ocean water slides landward, and tidal currents stir and mix the two. In particular, the “exchange flow” or “gravitational circulation,” with deep inflow and shallow outflow, dominates the circulation structure of many estuaries. We have sought to understand this complex system in part by tidal averaging. Theories have been developed to predict the subtidal

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Laurence Armi and Walter Zenk

1560 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 14Large Lenses of Highly Saline Mediterranean Water LAURENCE ARMIScripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jo!la, CA 92093WALTER ZENK!nstitut fiir Meereskunde an der Universitdt Kiel. 2500 Kiel 1. Germany(Manuscript received I May 1984, in final form 27 June 1984)ABSTRACT Isolated compact anticyclonic eddies or salt lenses were found in the Canary Basin

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Gaël Forget and Carl Wunsch

instantaneous temperature and salinity observations in least squares fitting problems that focus on the large-scale ocean state [e.g., Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO); Wunsch and Heimbach (2006) ]. 2. Sources of information, hypotheses, and methodology We start from a set of sample variances, computed by Stephens et al. (2002) using “historical” data. Here p indexes groups of values; each group is the ensemble of measurements [of temperature ( T ) or salinity ( S )] collected

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Magnus Hieronymus, Johan Nilsson, and Jonas Nycander

1. Introduction The oceanic temperature 1 T and salinity S distributions result from an interplay between air–sea fluxes, large-scale circulation, and small-scale turbulent mixing. The extreme S – T values are created by the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater ( Speer 1993 ), whereas the turbulent mixing acts to reduce the span of the S – T distribution. The large-scale circulation serves to bring water masses from different locations together, allowing the small-scale mixing to

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Bruce A. Warren

1. Introduction In stationary conditions at a level sea surface, the vertical velocity ( w ) that is induced by evaporation ( E ) and precipitation ( P ) is nearly ( E − P ). In recognition that the mass flux into (or out of) the atmosphere is of freshwater alone, attempts have been made to improve the representation: w = ( E − P )/(1 − S ), where S is the mass-fraction salinity, at the sea surface (e.g., Schmitt et al. 1989 ); or w = ρ F ( E − P )/[ ρ (1 − S )], where ρ is

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