Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 6,179 items for :

  • Journal of Climate x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Chao Li, Dirk Notz, Steffen Tietsche, and Jochem Marotzke

1. Introduction Simple models suggest that sea ice might exhibit multiple equilibria as a result of the ice–albedo feedback (e.g., Budyko 1969 ; Sellers 1969 ; North 1990 ). A possible irreversible shift of the sea ice state caused by anthropogenic climate change is of particular concern in evaluating the potential societal and environmental threat posed by future climate change, especially given the strong retreat of Arctic summer sea ice that has been observed in recent decades (e

Full access
Yu-Chiao Liang, Young-Oh Kwon, and Claude Frankignoul

1. Introduction The loss of Arctic sea ice since the late 1970s has been observed by routine satellite missions ( Stroeve and Notz 2018 ). It is one of the most robust features accompanying the anthropogenic warming in the late twentieth century ( Meehl et al. 2007 ; Serreze et al. 2007 ) and is projected to exacerbate in the future ( Overland and Wang 2013 ; Stroeve et al. 2012 ). On top of the apparent decreasing trend, the Arctic sea ice exhibits strong natural variability ( Kay et al

Open access
Jennifer V. Lukovich, Julienne C. Stroeve, Alex Crawford, Lawrence Hamilton, Michel Tsamados, Harry Heorton, and François Massonnet

1. Introduction Over the last four decades, the Arctic Ocean has lost over 40% of its summer sea ice cover (e.g., Stroeve and Notz 2018 ). This loss, together with an increasing desire to utilize the Arctic’s abundant natural resources and potential shipping routes, provides for increased marine access throughout the Arctic Ocean. This access has increased the need for reliable sea ice forecasts, especially at 1–3-month lead times. In response, the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH

Open access
Xiaojun Yuan, Dake Chen, Cuihua Li, Lei Wang, and Wanqiu Wang

1. Introduction The rapid summer Arctic sea ice retreat has not only been an icon of climate change but has also created more commercial opportunities in the newly opened Arctic waters, such as shipping and oil drilling ( Eicken 2013 ). However, lower summer sea ice cover comes with larger ice variability ( Goosse et al. 2009 ), causing tremendous difficulties in planning, and even threatening, commercial operations in the Arctic. Therefore, skillful sea ice prediction will become a needed

Full access
R. Kwok

1. Introduction In this paper, we provide an updated and expanded 29-yr view of the Arctic sea ice outflow into the Greenland and Barents Seas. This adds to the record of Fram Strait ice flux reported in Kwok and Rothrock (1999 , hereafter KR99 ) and Kwok et al. (2004) , and to the estimates of ice flux into the Barents Sea ( Kwok et al. 2005 ). The examination of ice outflow bears on two problems: the mass balance and ice volume of the Arctic sea ice cover, and the potential impact of this

Full access
Tamás Kovács, Rüdiger Gerdes, and John Marshall

1. Introduction The wind drives sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies through the modification of air–sea heat fluxes associated with large-scale modes of the atmospheric circulation ( Cayan 1992 ; Marshall et al. 2001 ). The wind stress curl can result in anomalous upwelling, influencing stratification and thus the SST ( Furevik and Nilsen 2005 ). In high latitudes sea ice plays an important role as a mediator of air–sea fluxes ( Meneghello et al. 2018 ). Because of the strong internal

Free access
Russell Blackport and Paul J. Kushner

1. Introduction The rapid retreat of Arctic sea ice ( Stroeve et al. 2012 ) has motivated a number of studies examining how sea ice loss in isolation might impact the atmospheric general circulation. Model simulations can be used to address this fundamental research question in light of the short observational record, internal climate variability, and the difficulty of isolating sea ice variability from other processes (e.g., Magnusdottir et al. 2004 ; Deser et al. 2004 ; Chiang and Bitz

Full access
E. C. van der Linden, R. Bintanja, W. Hazeleger, and C. A. Katsman

2003 ; Cai 2006 ; Ridley et al. 2007 ; Mahlstein and Knutti 2011 ) have all been shown to contribute to Arctic warming, but there is no consensus on their relative magnitude ( Kay et al. 2012 ). The physical processes that contribute most to Arctic warming are not necessarily the same that cause the intermodel spread. In high northern latitudes, sea ice is thought to play a crucial role in amplifying local temperature changes ( Screen and Simmonds 2010 ). Global climate models underestimate the

Full access
Robert Ricker, Frank Kauker, Axel Schweiger, Stefan Hendricks, Jinlun Zhang, and Stephan Paul

1. Introduction The Arctic is one of the hot spots of drastic changes in Earth’s climate system, a result of global warming associated with rising air temperatures ( Landrum and Holland 2020 ). These changes are accompanied by significant declining rates in sea ice concentration and thickness during the last several decades ( Comiso et al. 2008 ; Haas et al. 2008 ; Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ; Lindsay and Schweiger 2015 ; Ricker et al. 2017a ; Kwok 2018 ). In addition, rising ocean

Open access
Hyo-Seok Park, Andrew L. Stewart, and Jun-Hyeok Son

1. Introduction The Arctic sea ice extent and thickness have been rapidly decreasing in recent decades ( Kwok and Rothrock 2009 ; Laxon et al. 2013 ; Renner et al. 2014 ), but also exhibit substantial interannual variability. In the past few decades, there were several years that marked record lows in the summer sea ice extent: the summers of 2007, 2012, and 2016 highlight the rapidly diminishing Arctic sea ice associated with climate change ( Döscher et al. 2014 ; Cullather et al. 2016

Full access