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Jeffrey C. Snyder
and
Alexander V. Ryzhkov

. Wea. Forecasting , 24 , 884 – 891 , doi: 10.1175/2008WAF2222147.1 . Giangrande , S. E. , J. M. Krause , and A. V. Ryzhkov , 2008 : Automatic designation of the melting layer with a polarimetric prototype of the WSR-88D radar . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 47 , 1354 – 1364 , doi: 10.1175/2007JAMC1634.1 . Houser , J. L. , H. B. Bluestein , and J. C. Snyder , 2015 : Rapid-scan, polarimetric, Doppler radar observations of tornadogenesis and tornado dissipation in a tornadic

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Charlotte E. Wainwright
,
Daniel T. Dawson II
,
Ming Xue
, and
Guifu Zhang

simulations, focusing on the effect upon tornadogenesis. It was found that, in simulations in which N 0 was lowered such that the PSD favored large drops or hailstones, the resulting cold pools were weaker and the simulations tended to develop into single or multiple supercells, whereas when N 0 was increased the storms transformed to a linear mode during the simulations. Tornado-like low-level vortices formed in the low- N 0 simulations but not in others. Cohen and McCaul (2006) performed

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Christopher D. Karstens
,
William A. Gallus Jr.
,
Bruce D. Lee
, and
Catherine A. Finley

to the valley channel, increasing the storm-relative helicity of inflow parcels and enhancing the tornadogenesis potential as the storm crossed the valley. The channeling effect presented herein is similarly thought to have also led to winds increasing above the minimum threshold wind speed necessary to induce uprooting or stem breakage. It is important to note a few other factors that could have contributed to the observations documented in Figs. 1c and 1d . Among these factors are

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Steven V. Vasiloff
,
Edward A. Brandes
,
Robert P. Davies-Jones
, and
Peter S. Ray

appears that a spectrum of storm types, rather than distinct categories,exists. Acknowledgments. Special thanks to Drs. KennethJohnson and Conrad Ziegler and Mr. Donald Burgessfor their critical reviews. Messrs. Charles Clark andRobert Goldsmith and Ms. Joan Kimpel are responsible for the graphics. Ms. Sandra McPherson typedvarious copies of the manuscript.REFERENCESBrandes, E. A., 1978: Mesocyclone evolution and tornadogenesis: Some observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 996-1011. ,1981

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Paul R. Desrochers
and
Samuel Y. K. Yee

. A. K. Peters, 264 pp. JDOP Staff, 1979: Final report on the Joint Doppler Operational Project (JDOP) 1976–1978. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL NSSL-86, 84 pp. Kaiser, G., 1995: A Friendly Guide to Wavelets. Birkhauser, 300 pp. Lee, R. R., and A. White, 1998: Improvement of the WSR-88D mesocyclone algorithm. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 341–351. Lemon, L. R., and C. A. Doswell III, 1979: Severe thunderstorm evolution and mesocyclone structure as related to tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107

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Shun Liu
,
Chongjian Qiu
,
Qin Xu
, and
Pengfei Zhang

– 1284 . Daley , R. 1991 . Atmospheric Data Analysis . Cambridge University Press, 457 pp . Doviak , R. J. and D. S. Zrnic . 1993 . Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. 2d ed. Academic Press, 562 pp . Dowell , D. C. and H. B. Bluestein . 1997 . The Arcadia, Oklahoma, storm of 17 May 1981: Analysis of a supercell during tornadogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev 125 : 2562 – 2582 . Gal-Chen , T. 1982 . Errors in fixed and moving frame of references: Applications for conventional

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Kristopher M. Bedka
,
Christopher S. Velden
,
Ralph A. Petersen
,
Wayne F. Feltz
, and
John R. Mecikalski

the southwest in a weaker flow were primarily hail producers (see Fig. 2 ). Several tornado reports were in this higher–wind speed region, indicating that the MESO product may have depicted a localized region of enhanced low-level wind shear favorable for tornadogenesis. Another significant difference between MESO and OPER is found along and to the north of the surface boundary in Oklahoma. MESO depicts low-level flow from the NW with numerous vectors. This flow is not present in either OPER or

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Pamela L. Heinselman
and
Sebastián M. Torres

; Kumjian et al. 2010 ; Yussouf and Stensrud 2010 ). For example, in 2010 the second Verification of the Origin of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX2) used short-wavelength (3 and 5 cm) mobile radars to collect rapid-scan data to improve our understanding of tornadogenesis (information online at http://www.vortex2.org ). In another research initiative, the Center for Collaborative Adapting Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) has been investigating the use of distributed collaborative adaptive

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Xiantong Liu
,
Huiqi Li
,
Sheng Hu
,
Qilin Wan
,
Hui Xiao
,
Tengfei Zheng
,
Minghua Li
,
Langming Ye
,
Zheyong Guo
,
Yao Wang
, and
Zhaochao Yan

) . Chinese J. Atmos. Sci. , 40 , 841 – 852 . Zheng , K. L. , and B. J. Chen , 2014 : Sensitivities of tornadogenesis to drop size distribution in a simulated subtropical supercell over eastern China . Adv. Atmos. Sci. , 31 , 657 – 668 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-013-3143-7 . 10.1007/s00376-013-3143-7

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Dereka Carroll-Smith
,
Robert J. Trapp
, and
James M. Done

.1175/BAMS-D-12-00074.1 . 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00074.1 Rhodes , C. L. , and J. C. Senkbeil , 2014 : Factors contributing to tornadogenesis in landfalling Gulf of Mexico tropical cyclones . Meteor. Appl. , 21 , 940 – 947 , https://doi.org/10.1002/met.1437 . 10.1002/met.1437 Sato , T. , F. Kimura , and A. Kitoh , 2007 : Projection of global warming onto regional precipitation over Mongolia using a regional climate model . J. Hydrol. , 333 , 144 – 154 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j

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