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Christopher G. Fletcher, Lindsay Matthews, Jean Andrey, and Adam Saunders

Dulac 2013 ). The lifespan and state of repair of transportation assets are affected by a number of factors, including their original designs as well as traffic loads. Empirical studies also reveal that weather accounts for a significant fraction of deterioration, even when infrastructure is designed and constructed to standard, taking into account local climatic conditions. The transportation community is increasingly questioning whether climatic risks are being adequately incorporated into asset

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António Lobo, Sara Ferreira, Isabel Iglesias, and António Couto

and inconsistent, which makes it harder to analyze and represent their behavior. Theofilatos and Yannis (2014) noted that there are very few studies specifically devoted to the effects of meteorological conditions on crashes involving vulnerable road users, namely power two-wheelers, cyclists, and pedestrians. This is in contrast to the numerous studies that address the weather effects on the frequency and/or severity of other types of crashes or that simply do not discriminate those effects

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Scott D. Landolt, Joshua S. Lave, Darcy Jacobson, Andrew Gaydos, Stephanie DiVito, and Daniel Porter

1. Introduction Meteorological observations have become increasingly important to aviation safety over the past century, especially with the dawn of the aviation era and the introduction of numerical weather prediction models. Humans initially provided these observations in the early decades of the twentieth century, but, as technology advanced, sensors were developed that could autonomously take many of the same types of observations. As these sensors became more prevalent, human weather

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Curtis L. Walker and Mark R. Anderson

1. Introduction Pavement temperature forecasts provide critical information to local officials, transportation industry interests, and the general public, whether traveling for business or pleasure, and are imperative in the prevention of loss of life and damage to property ( Pisano et al. 2008 ; Chen et al. 2009 ; Khasawneh and Liang 2012 ; Federal Highway Administration 2014 ). The use of pavement temperature information is becoming more widespread with technological advancements ( NCAR

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Katelyn A. Barber, Wiebke Deierling, Gretchen Mullendore, Cathy Kessinger, Robert Sharman, and Domingo Muñoz-Esparza

convection. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States set policies that include a lateral avoidance of 20 mi (32.2 km) from severe convection (U.S. Department of Transportation; FAA 2017 ). While consistency in operations between the midlatitudes and tropics may reduce the number of guidelines needed to avoid convective hazards, it could also be inefficient for flight routing and planning when tropical convection is significantly different than midlatitude convection. It is commonly

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Shawn L. Handler, Heather D. Reeves, and Amy McGovern

limited deployment. The installation of RWIS sensors is at the discretion of individual state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) and, hence, they are not evenly distributed across the CONUS ( Fig. 1a ). Note that there is very poor to no coverage in most southern-tier states. Even in those states that do have RWIS sites, the spatial distribution is nonuniform, with more urbanized areas/heavily trafficked roads being better monitored than secondary or tertiary roadways. The most egregious example of

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Steven D. Miller, Courtney E. Weeks, Randy G. Bullock, John M. Forsythe, Paul A. Kucera, Barbara G. Brown, Cory A. Wolff, Philip T. Partain, Andrew S. Jones, and David B. Johnson

1. Introduction Accurate cloud forecasts by numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are of particular importance to the aviation community. As part of the efforts to optimize air traffic control in consideration of weather and its associated hazards, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has outlined the Next Generation (NextGen) ( http://www.faa.gov/nextgen/ ; FAA 2013 ) Air Transportation System. NextGen aims to provide via automated processes a common picture across the national

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Gregory Thompson, Marcia K. Politovich, and Roy M. Rasmussen

thank, in particular, Changhai Liu and Kyoko Ikeda for their massive efforts. Likewise, we thank WRF Model developers at NCAR’s Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division along with colleagues at NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory. Starr McGettigan at the FAA’s Wm. J. Hugh Technical Center is acknowledged for bringing to our attention the major icing event of 16 January 2013 and for providing the FAA logs for this date. NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. We would like to

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Katelyn A. Barber, Gretchen L. Mullendore, and M. Joan Alexander

Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology , Austin, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 11.3, https://ams.confex.com/ams/93Annual/webprogram/Manuscript/Paper219007/In%20Situ%20Performance%20Standard%20for%20Eddy%20Dissipation%20Rate%20-%202013-02-08.pdf . Federal Aviation Administration , 2017 : Safety of flight. Aeronautical Information Manual: Official Guide to Basic Flight Information and ATC Procedures , U.S. Dept. of Transportation, 435 – 539 , https

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Peter Sheridan, Simon Vosper, and Samantha Smith

1. Introduction Calm nights with clear skies come with an increased risk of low temperatures and related hazards such as crop damage, or frost and fog affecting road transportation, particularly in valley bottoms. Spatial variation of temperature in complex terrain under these conditions reflects not only the vertical temperature lapse rate within an air mass but also local effects of the terrain. Surface cooling is dominated by radiative losses; air near the surface is then cooled by contact

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