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Patrik Jonsson and Mats Riehm

1. Introduction The road surface temperature is traditionally monitored by sensors installed in the pavement. The data retrieved from these sensors are used in models determining the road status conditions. This requires an accurate monitoring of the topmost road temperature, combined with meteorological measurements and forecasts, to correctly predict if and when ice will form on the pavement and to determine how severe the snowy and icy conditions will become. The location of monitoring

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Z. Sheng, Y. Jiang, L. Wan, and Z. Q. Fan

the middle atmosphere is essential for launching vehicles; satellites; manned spacecraft and other spacecraft; and missile weapons research, testing, and application ( Knoedler 2008 ). The meteorological rockets are essential tools to observe atmospheric parameters in the stratosphere and mesosphere ( Reed 1966 ; Sasi et al. 2003 ; Antonita et al. 2007 ). In September 2012, within 15 min, four rocketsondes were launched to probe high-altitude winds at the top of the middle-layer jet, providing

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Robin J. Hogan, Dominique Bouniol, Darcy N. Ladd, Ewan J. O'Connor, and Anthony J. Illingworth

1. Introduction Radars at 94 and 95 GHz have been used in cloud research for more than a decade ( Lhermitte 1987 ; Pazmany et al. 1994 ; Clothiaux et al. 1995 ; Sekelsky and McIntosh 1996 ), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch a spaceborne cloud radar in 2004 at this frequency ( Austin and Stephens 2001 ); in order to use them quantitatively to derive cloud properties they must be well calibrated. The usual approach to calibrating meteorological

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Clemens Drüe and Günther Heinemann

1. Introduction a. Motivation Aircraft-based in situ measurements are among the most valuable tools for the investigation of physical processes in the atmosphere. Although aircraft have always been used as meteorological sensor platforms ( Moninger et al. 2003 ), and the equations to calculate wind vector and other quantities are well known (e.g., Tjernström and Friehe 1991 ; Lenschow 1986 ), obtaining good atmospheric measurements is still a complex and challenging task. Typically, 15

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Alexander P. Trishchenko and Louis Garand

temperature ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). The enhanced melting of sea ice allows significant economic opportunities related to transportation and natural resources exploration. Deriving high-quality climate records from satellites also requires good temporal sampling, especially for rapidly evolving variables such as cloud and radiation. The current paradigm of satellite meteorology relies on the combination of geostationary (GEO) and low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites. The LEO satellites belong in most cases

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B. E. Sheppard and P. I. Joe

(MANOBS). 7th ed. Meteorological Service of Canada, 401 pp. [Available from Meteorological Service of Canada, 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview, ON M3H 5T4, Canada.] . Battan, L. J., 1973: Radar Observations of the Atmosphere. University of Chicago Press, 324 pp . D’Avirro, J., A. Peters, M. Hanna, P. Dawson, and M. Chaput, 1997:Aircraft ground de/anti-icing fluid holdover time field testing program for the 1996/97 winter. Transportation Development Centre Publication TP 13131E, 233 pp. [Available from

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Ali Tokay, David B. Wolff, and Walter A. Petersen

gauges in each of the five major events, but the differences were 16% or less with respect to the rain gauges. In 2005, OTT Hydromet purchased all the rights of the Parsivel and redesigned the instrument to specifically target applications in the transportation sector. Indeed, transportation agencies around the world purchased the OTT Parsivels (P1) to be used as a present weather sensor. There are several differences between the OTT and PM Tech models. The output voltages in the PM Tech and OTT

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Minhan Liao, Jiufu Liu, Aimin Liao, Zhao Cai, Yixin Huang, Peng Zhuo, and Xuegang Li

1. Introduction At present, tipping-bucket rain gauges (TBRs) have become the most common instrument for automatic rainfall measurement in basic national rainfall stations and in meteorological observation stations for observation and research ( Giles 2010 ; Humphrey et al. 1997 ; Liu and Gu 2018 ; Santana et al. 2015 ; Shedekar et al. 2016 ; Upton and Rahimi 2003 ). Rainfall observation accuracy plays an essential role in hydrological forecasting, flood control, landslide prediction, and

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Daniel E. Wolfe and Seth I. Gutman

meteorological sensors at existing CORS sites should facilitate global coverage (over land) in a timely and cost-effective manner. To date, the Environmental Technology Laboratory and FSL have 35 GPS–IPW instrumented sites ( Fig. 1 ). Nineteen of the 35 sites are NOAA NPN sites ( Table 1a ), 5 sites are located at other sister NOAA facilities ( Table 1b ), and 11 are part of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) differential GPS (DGPS) and Department of Transportation (DoT) navigational DGPS sites (NDGPS, Table 1c

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S. Vogt and P. Thomas

94 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUM-11Test of a Phased Array Sodar by Intercomparison with Tower Data S. VOGT AND P. THOMASInstitut fiir Meteorologic und Klimaforschung, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Universitdt Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany(Manuscript received I April 1992, in final form 4 March 1993)ABSTRACT The phased array sodar PA2 recently manufactured by the French REMTECH enterprise was

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