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Alexander G. McAdie

occur in the atmosphere where strataof different densities lie close together, with particular refer-ence to the billow and wave effects near the limiting surfacesof the strata.It appears to me not doubtfu1,lsays Helmholtz, that such systems of waves occur with remarkable frequencv at the bounding surfaces of strata of air of different densities, even-although in most cases they remain invisible to us. Evidently we. see them on1 when the lowest stratum is so nearly saturated with aqueous vapor tiat

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D. G. Steyn and I. G. Mckendry

9 March 1988) This study presents an evaluation of the performance of the Colorado State University (CSU) three-dimensionalnumerical mesoseale model. The evaluati6n consists of quantitative and qualitative comparisons of the modeloutput with observed data. The observations were undertaken in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia,Canada on 23 August 1985 utilizing up to 23 fixed stations for anemometry, three acoustic sounders, onetethersonde and one set of instruments for determining

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G. S. Bhat and A. Krothapalli

+ ∂ w */∂ z, ρ is the mean density, u * = ρ u, υ * = ρ υ, w * = ρ w, α is the divergence damping coefficient introduced to attenuate the acoustic waves, D is the subgrid-scale turbulence and is expressed in terms of the Reynolds stress tensor τ ij for the velocity as D i = ∂ τ ij /∂ x j , D θ = ∂ H i /∂ x i ( H being the heat flux), and S θ is the heat source. In addition, B is the buoyancy force and c s is the acoustic wave speed. The nonhydrostatic formulation used in ARPS

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Peter T. May, A. R. Jameson, Thomas D. Keenan, Paul E. Johnston, and Chris Lucas

-polarization weather radar (C-Pol: Keenan et al. 1998 ). In the early part of the experiment, several short-lived storms that formed on locally forced convergence lines passed over the profilers. This paper focuses on the vertical circulation and precipitation microphysics of these storms that were observed primarily with the wind profilers and C-Pol radar. Results concerning rain estimation, hail detection, and microphysical effects on the polarimetric measurements are given in May et al. (2001) . These shallow

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B. B. Demoz, D. O’C. Starr, K. D. Evans, A. R. Lare, D. N. Whiteman, G. Schwemmer, R. A. Ferrare, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and S. E. Bisson

– 132 . Turner , J. S. , 1979 : Buoyancy Effects in Fluids . Cambridge University Press, 368 pp . Wakimoto , R. M. , and D. E. Kingsmill , 1995 : Structure of an atmospheric undular bore generated from colliding boundaries during CaPE. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 123 , 1374 – 1393 . Wang , J. R. , S. H. Melfi , P. Racette , D. N. Whiteman , L. A. Chang , R. A. Ferrare , K. D. Evans , and F. J. Schmidlin , 1995 : Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric water vapor with

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David B. Parsons and Jimy Dudhia

journals discussing squall lines, severe weather, drylines, and frontal systems in this region. As noted by Mace and Ackerman (1996) , these difficult conditions are often precisely the instances of primary interest for ARM. Other difficulties that ARM must overcome to meet their measurement objective include 1) some variables (i.e., vertical motion, upper-level relative humidity) are difficult to measure and/or include significant measurement errors; 2) to verify that the subgrid-scale effects

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Clive E. Dorman and Darko Koračin

) station of DIA. This is true for the inversion base heights on a strong and a moderate wind day shown in Table 7 , as well as for the others that are not shown. e. Hydraulic properties of the flow according to numerical simulations Because most of the profile measurements are on the mainland, the hydraulic effects on the cross-coast marine layer structure are investigated by MM5 simulations. A fast wind case at 0000 UTC 10 June is selected, as this is associated with the highest wind speeds at a time

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Hung-Neng S. Chin, Daniel J. Rodriguez, Richard T. Cederwall, Catherine C. Chuang, Allen S. Grossman, John J. Yio, Qiang Fu, and Mark A. Miller

: Sensitivity to radiation and comparison with a midlatitude case. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 3172–3193. Chuang, C. C., J. E. Penner, K. E. Taylor, and A. S. Grossman, 1997:An assessment of the radiative effects of anthropogenic sulfate. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 3761–3778. Clothiaux, E. E., and Coauthors, 1999: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program cloud radars: Operational modes. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16, 819–827. Cotton, W. R., 1975: On parameterization of turbulent transport in

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David B. Parsons, Melvyn A. Shapiro, R. Michael Hardesty, Robert J. Zamora, and Janet M. Intrieri

the drylineduring the day and a westward advection or retrogression during the evening. In this study, we examine thefmeseale structure of a retrogressing dryline using data taken by a Doppler lidar, a dual-channel radiometer,and serial rawinsonde ascents. While many previous studies were unable to accurately measure the verticalmotions in the vicinity of the dryline, our lidar measurements suggest that the convergence at the dryline isintense with maximum vertical motions of ~5 m s-L The winds

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distribution and relation to Indian rainfall; possibility of forecasting monsoon rains. Calcutta. 1931. p. 69-85. 5 pl. (incl. maps), tables.26 cm. (India. Met. dept. Scient. iiotea. v. 4, no. 38.)Knudson, Vern 0.The absorption of sound in air, in osygen, and in nitrogen- effects of humiditmy and temperature. 1933. p. 112--121.figs., tables. 27% cm. (Acoustical SOCY. of amer. Jnl.v. 5. Oct., 1933.)Los Angeles flood control district.Rainfall and runoff report. Seasons 1932-1933 and 1933-1934. June 1, 1935

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