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Michael D. Dettinger and Henry F. Diaz

dataset for the United States for the study of climate variations, 1874–1988. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Rep. 92-129, 193 pp. [Available from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Open-File Reports Section, Federal Ctr., Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225.] . Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297–1300 . 10.1029/98GL00950 Ting, M., M. P. Hoerling, T. Xu, and A. Kumar, 1996

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Seth Westra and Ashish Sharma

. Jain, S. , and Lall U. , 2001 : Floods in a changing climate: Does the past represent the future? Water Resour. Res. , 37 , 3193 – 3205 . 10.1029/2001WR000495 Jevrejeva, S. , Moore J. C. , and Grinsted A. , 2003 : Influence of the Arctic Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on ice conditions in the Baltic Sea: The wavelet approach. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4677 . doi:10.1029/2003JD003417 . Jevrejeva, S. , Moore J. C. , and Grinsted A. , 2004 : Oceanic and

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M. N. Khaliq and P. Gachon

(PDO), in addition to other large-scale ocean and atmospheric phenomenon (e.g., Stahl et al. 2006 ; Woo and Thorn 2008 ). Also, it has been shown that the Arctic Oscillation and PDO have teleconnections with river flows of the Hudson Bay in Canada ( Déry and Wood 2004 ) and with the flows of southeastern Alaskan rivers ( Neal et al. 2002 ). Quite recently, the influence of PDO on winter and other seasonal streamflows and their temporal pattern of occurrences have been studied in an attempt to

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Reinel Sospedra-Alfonso, Lawrence Mudryk, William Merryfield, and Chris Derksen

al. 2004 ; Fletcher et al. 2009 ; Peings et al. 2012 ; Cohen et al. 2014 ). Snow anomalies also respond to and may amplify the impact of patterns of climate variability such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation ( Yang et al. 2001 ; Bao et al. 2011 ) and the Arctic Oscillation ( Cohen et al. 2014 ). By acting as frozen storage in the water balance, SWE provides an important source of freshwater recharge in the spring, which influences runoff, soil moisture, and groundwater ( Barnett et al. 2005

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Daniel Paredes, Ricardo M. Trigo, Ricardo Garcia-Herrera, and Isabel Franco Trigo

consistent positive trend over the last four decades. It might be that this corresponds to a consistent climate change signal, possibly conditioned by the decreasing temperatures and geopotential height in the lower stratosphere ( Baldwin and Dunkerton 2005 ), which are known to be influencing the signal of the tropospheric associated mode [Arctic Oscillation (AO) and NAO]. Finally, it should be emphasized that the region with significant March precipitation negative trend encloses the three major

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Andreas Stohl and Paul James

in the atmosphere is also a driving force of the thermohaline circulation ( Weaver et al. 1999 ). The North Atlantic Ocean, for instance, is a relatively strong source of water vapor through net evaporation, in contrast to the North Pacific Ocean. This leads to a higher sea surface salinity in the North Atlantic than in the North Pacific Ocean. Fresher water flowing through the Bering Strait from the Pacific into the Arctic and North Atlantic Ocean partly compensates this, but the higher sea

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M. Rodell and P. R. Houser

satellite- and ground-based observations to confirm a previously inferred inverse relationship between winter snow cover over western Eurasia and subsequent Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Several observation-based studies have shown that Eurasian snow cover influences the state and persistence of the Arctic Oscillation ( Cohen and Entekhabi 1999 , 2001 ; Bojariu and Gimeno 2003 ; Saito and Cohen 2003 ; Saunders et al. 2003 ), which in turn affects the severity of the winter season in the entire

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Xuan Tong, Zhongwei Yan, Jiangjiang Xia, and Xiao Lou

.agrformet.2015.10.011 Prasad , A. M. , L. R. Iverson , and A. Liaw , 2006 : Newer classification and regression tree techniques: Bagging and random forests for ecological prediction . Ecosystems , 9 , 181 – 199 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-005-0054-1 . 10.1007/s10021-005-0054-1 Qu , J. X. , D. Y. Gong , M. Rui , J. Yang , and S. Li , 2017 : Possible influence of Arctic oscillation on precipitation along the East Asian rain belt during boreal spring . Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 130 , 487

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Ricardo García-Herrera, Emiliano Hernández, David Barriopedro, Daniel Paredes, Ricardo M. Trigo, Isabel Franco Trigo, and Manuel A. Mendes

in Iberia is mainly related to transient low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, as shown by studies relating precipitation and circulation patterns at the daily scale by means of weather-type approaches ( Trigo and DaCamara 2000 ; Goodess and Jones 2002 ; Paredes et al. 2006 ). The North Atlantic Oscillation pattern (NAO) controls, to a large extent, the preferred location of storm-track paths over the North Atlantic region ( Trigo 2006 ; R. M. Trigo et al. 2002 ). Thus, it exerts strong

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Pavla Pekarova, Dana Halmova, Pavol Miklanek, Milan Onderka, Jan Pekar, and Peter Skoda

the Danube River at Bratislava for the period 1956–2000 were analyzed by Lisicky and Mucha (2003) . The impacts of human activities on water temperatures in the Danube along its entire length were investigated by Stancikova and Capekova (1993) . Over the past decade, emphasis has been placed on the increasing atmospheric temperatures as a result of the greenhouse effect and the impact of phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) on the fluctuations of

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