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Ji-Hyun Oh, Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, Mitchell W. Moncrieff, Richard H. Johnson, and Paul Ciesielski

, it has been noted that the westerly wind events (WWEs) associated with the MJO can impact El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Zhang 2005 ; Hendon et al. 2007 ; Seiki and Takayabu 2007 ). Despite considerable effort made toward improving the prediction skill of the MJO, critical challenges still remain for current general circulation models (GCMs) to more accurately represent the MJO and, in particular, its initiation over the IO. Dominated by seasonally changing monsoon flow, the IO is a

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

future work. Fig . 3. Time–longitude plot of rainfall rates from TRMM 3B42 (3-hourly values, color) and moisture budget (3-day running-mean filtering of daily average values, contours, mm day −1 ) averaged over 5°N–5°S for DYNAMO SOP. The vertical dashed lines denote the east and west boundaries of sounding arrays. Missing moisture budget results between 95° and 100°E mark location of Sumatra, where surface flux data do not exist. A broadscale depiction of the SOP-mean rainfall rate over the Indian

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Adrian J. Matthews, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Karen J. Heywood, Piotr J. Flatau, and Sunke Schmidtko

variability that stems from the improved diurnal SST variability ( Bernie et al. 2007 ). These and other studies (e.g., Klingaman et al. 2011 ) concluded that a very fine vertical grid spacing, of approximately 1 m, is required in the upper layers of the ocean component to resolve the diurnal warm layer processes there. As most current ocean–atmosphere GCMs have a grid spacing on the order of 10 m and are often only coupled daily, these processes are not resolved. This leads to a degradation in the

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

convection over the eastern Pacific using 3-h satellite data, Bain et al. (2010 , 2011 ) found a diurnal pulsing in the extent of the ITCZ cloud envelope with a 15% afternoon increase along with a 1300–1600 LT minimum in IR temperatures. The results presented in the current paper are intended to complement these earlier studies by offering a unique perspective on the diurnal cycle of the ITCZ through use of 3-hourly in situ sounding observations. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for the

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