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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

1. Introduction Few currently deny that extreme weather and climate change are among the most pressing problems of our times. For the past hundred years, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) has supported and fostered science focusing on meteorology and climatic change, but only more recently has this effort included the social sciences ( Demuth et al. 2007 ). In this chapter, we review some of the social science currently informing our understanding of human interactions with all forms of

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

observing systems implemented by some U.S. federal agencies are provided. Reference to particular events in other countries and international efforts such as those by the World Meteorological Organization are also discussed. This chapter provides a summary of progress in observing the planetary boundary layer (PBL) in section 2 and the upper air (sounding systems) in section 3 . Section 4 provides an overview of some common remote sensing systems, and section 5 covers solar and terrestrial

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

they have helped enable deploying more of this variable resource. 2) Probabilistic forecasting Another area of forecasting ripe for advances using AI is probabilistic forecasting. The current approaches to probabilistic forecasting involve running ensembles of NWP simulations with perturbations to the initial conditions, boundary conditions, physics parameterization, or even base model dynamics in an attempt to quantify the uncertainty. That approach requires a large computing resource to

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W.-K. Tao, Y. N. Takayabu, S. Lang, S. Shige, W. Olson, A. Hou, G. Skofronick-Jackson, X. Jiang, C. Zhang, W. Lau, T. Krishnamurti, D. Waliser, M. Grecu, P. E. Ciesielski, R. H. Johnson, R. Houze, R. Kakar, K. Nakamura, S. Braun, S. Hagos, R. Oki, and A. Bhardwaj

, and graupel/hail; and the deposition and sublimation of ice particles. It is important to keep in mind that eddy heat flux convergence from cloud motions can also redistribute the heating or cooling associated with LH vertically and horizontally. LH cannot be measured directly with current techniques, including current remote sensing or in situ instruments, which explains why nearly all satellite retrieval schemes depend heavily on some type of cloud-resolving model (CRM) ( Tao et al. 2006

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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman

(PROBE) campaign ( Renne et al. 1994 ) was the first ARM field campaign and TWP science contribution, providing useful radiation data for TOGA COARE ( Waliser et al. 1996 ; Long 1996 ) and producing a landmark paper by Westwater et al. (1999) , which won the 2000 Professor Dr. Vilho Vaisala Award in Atmospheric Sciences from the World Meteorological Organization. PROBE included high-spectral-resolution IR observations from a Fourier transform infrared radiometer that were used to update the then-current

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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

not constrained by budget considerations and current technology. The intent was to allow participants to look far enough into the future to deploy a capability that would not become obsolete within a decade. The sentiment was, “If you can imagine it, you can build it.” The results of these workshops are discussed in the following sections. At the same time, Gerry Stokes was addressing the need to marshal the technical and management manpower with the skills necessary to map out the ARM deployment

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Randy A. Peppler, Kenneth E. Kehoe, Justin W. Monroe, Adam K. Theisen, and Sean T. Moore

-term data trends (to put current measurements in context), maintenance and calibration reports, and the development of data quality documentation (as interesting issues are discovered) to serve as pattern recognition are part of this process. 3. Data stream inspection and assessment, problem reporting and resolution, and reprocessing We refer readers to Peppler et al. (2008b) for more details on the processes described here. Given the data volume described at the beginning of this chapter, data

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D. L. Sisterson, R. A. Peppler, T. S. Cress, P. J. Lamb, and D. D. Turner

required the collection of data at and above the CF on the vertical distribution of radiation and radiatively active constituents of the atmosphere, and on the radiative properties of the lower boundary ( Table 6-1 ). To that end, vertical profiles and integrated measures of temperature and water vapor were to be observed at regular intervals with traditional balloon-borne sounding systems, and continuously with state-of-the-science remote sensing systems (microwave radiometer, radar acoustic sounding

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Yukari N. Takayabu, George N. Kiladis, and Victor Magaña

’s ideas on the subject were truly visionary since they clearly spelled out the conditions for the instability of a wave within a moist easterly current and also laid the foundation for the study of the coupling of convection with the large-scale wave field. In Yanai (1961b , p. 285), Michio first considered the concept, which he attributed to Priestley (1959) , of free versus forced convection, with free convection due to buoyancy and forced convection “where the motion is otherwise imposed” by

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

Mak 1996 ; Kaspi and Schneider 2013 ). Last, the low-level flow induced by the eddies exerts wind stresses on the oceans that help maintain the warm boundary currents and thereby baroclinicity ( Hoskins and Valdes 1990 ). Diabatic processes also influence storm-track variability. There are distinct differences between the eastern and the western North Atlantic. Over the western Atlantic, the maxima in sensible and latent heating remain anchored to areas of strong sea surface temperature gradients

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