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A. Senatore, S. Davolio, L. Furnari, and G. Mendicino

, the high-resolution and the increased capability of models in representing relevant physical processes, have improved rainfall forecast skills ( Weusthoff et al. 2010 ; Bauer et al. 2011 ), especially at the small scales particularly relevant for hydrological applications in coastal areas. Notwithstanding the rapid improvement of global NWP accuracy and the related efforts for detailed representation of hydrological processes ( Zsoter et al. 2019 ), currently, at such scales, only an approach

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C. Spence, P. D. Blanken, J. D. Lenters, and N. Hedstrom

), particularly if these changes persist through time. Current Lake Superior water levels have been below normal since 1997, and 147-yr-old low-water marks were set in August and September 2007. Extreme lake levels on Lake Superior are largely driven by hydroclimatic factors ( Stow et al. 2008 ) and can be cyclical. Previous low-water periods in the 1920s and early 1960s can be attributed to low precipitation and runoff into the lake. The current low-water period has been proposed to be anomalous, in that it

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Xiaodong Chen, L. Ruby Leung, Yang Gao, and Ying Liu

. The historical simulation (HIST) is the same as that described and analyzed in Chen et al. (2019a , b) , with a simulation period covering 1 October 2000–30 September 2015, with the first three months used as model spinup. The simulation was driven by lower and lateral boundary conditions from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) ( Mesinger et al. 2006 ), which has also been used with the WRF model in other studies of snowpack in the western United States ( Rasmussen et al. 2011

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Ioannis Sofokleous, Adriana Bruggeman, Silas Michaelides, Panos Hadjinicolaou, George Zittis, and Corrado Camera

, which includes steep topography close to the lateral boundaries, may yield adverse effects on regional climate simulations at 6-km resolution. For simulations at 2.5-km resolution, over a region with relatively homogenous flat terrain, Brisson et al. (2016) found that a minimum distance of about 150 km between the evaluation domain and the lateral boundary was required to achieve convergence of modeled precipitation toward observations. According to Rojas and Seth (2003) , the choice of the

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T. J. Bellerby

1. Introduction Current high-resolution satellite precipitation products combine information from multiple satellite sensors carried on a range of different satellite platforms ( Adler et al. 2000 ; Behrangi et al. 2010 ; Bellerby et al. 2009 ; Huffman et al. 2007 ; Joyce et al. 2004 ; Kidd et al. 2003 ; Marzano et al. 2004 ; Nicholson et al. 2003a , b ; Sorooshian et al. 2000 ; Tapiador et al. 2004 ; Todd et al. 2001 ; Turk and Miller 2005 ; Ushio et al. 2009 ; Xu et al. 1999

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Hanh Nguyen, Jason A. Otkin, Matthew C. Wheeler, Pandora Hope, Blair Trewin, and Christa Pudmenzky

found to be useful for monitoring drought over the contiguous United States ( Anderson et al. 2007 , 2013 ), Brazil ( Anderson et al. 2016a ), and the Czech Republic ( Anderson et al. 2016b ). It is currently used as an input to the U.S. Drought Monitor (M. Svoboda 2019, personal communication). The ESI is especially useful for monitoring rapidly intensifying drought, or flash drought , with examples from both the United States ( Otkin et al. 2018a , b , and references therein) and Australia

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Jinwoong Yoo, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Marshall Shepherd, Sujay Kumar, Patricia Lawston, and Andrew M. Thomas

via proper simulation in coupled modeling systems. In regard to the general environmental conditions favorable for genesis (i.e., Gray 1968 , 1998 ), it is commonly accepted that TCs develop with three ingredients: 1) ample enthalpy in the atmospheric boundary layer created by surface latent heat fluxes from the ocean, 2) higher relative humidity in the middle troposphere, and 3) low tropospheric stability with low vertical wind shear above the warm ocean, permitting deep convections for an

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Maheshwari Neelam, Rajat Bindlish, Peggy O’Neill, George J. Huffman, Rolf Reichle, Steven Chan, and Andreas Colliander

desirable to flag any SMAP observations and retrievals based on ancillary knowledge of recent precipitation at a given location to avoid overestimation of soil moisture. Since SMAP does not have the ability to detect rain by an independent means, it relies on outside ancillary data sources. Currently, SMAP’s L2SMP soil moisture algorithm includes flagging, which indicates the presence or absence of precipitation at the time of a SMAP overpass based on 3 h time-average precipitation estimates from the

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Eli J. Dennis and Ernesto Hugo Berbery

-to-annual time scales ( Dirmeyer 2011 ; Roundy and Wood 2015 ), and extending into climate scales ( Seneviratne et al. 2010 ; Koster et al. 2006 ). Soil moisture affects the partitioning of surface fluxes that control the vertical stability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Land surface–atmosphere coupling also depends on the spatial extent of a phenomenon, ranging from local scales ( Santanello et al. 2018 ) to basin scales ( Betts 2009 ; Weaver 2004 ; Ferguson et al. 2012 ). In certain synoptic

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Long Yang, James A. Smith, Daniel B. Wright, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, Fuqiang Tian, and Heping Hu

1. Introduction In this paper, we examine the hydroclimatology, hydrometeorology, and hydrology of floods through analyses centered on the Menomonee River basin in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, metropolitan region ( Fig. 1 ). The Menomonee River basin, which has a drainage area of 319 km 2 , exhibits heterogeneous land use and land cover, including some of the most heavily urbanized portions of Milwaukee ( Zhang and Smith 2003 ). Adjacent to the northern boundary of the Menomonee River basin is the

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