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E. J. Barton, C. M. Taylor, C. Klein, P. P. Harris, and X. Meng

authors commented that further work was needed to assess sensitivity to sub-plateau-scale surface wetness patterns. The impact of soil moisture (SM) on moist convection has been recognized by numerous works (e.g., see reviews by Seneviratne et al. 2010 ; Santanello et al. 2018 ). SM affects the partitioning of surface fluxes into sensible and latent heat, which control planetary boundary layer (PBL) growth and moisture availability, respectively. Depending on the atmospheric stability profile

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Eric A. Rosenberg, Andrew W. Wood, and Anne C. Steinemann

important for seasonal streamflow prediction. With about 90% of its area falling within this system, HHWM8 is a classic example of this scenario, but others (e.g., EGLC2, GBRW4, and NVRN5) contain wilderness areas as well, primarily at higher elevations near basin boundaries. Table 2. Summary statistics for the 24 basins in the study. Mean values were calculated over the calibration period. The annual runoff ratio is defined as the ratio of annual runoff to annual precipitation. Fig . 1. The 24 basins

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Marouane Temimi, Ricardo Fonseca, Narendra Nelli, Michael Weston, Mohan Thota, Vineeth Valappil, Oliver Branch, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Niranjan Kumar Kondapalli, Youssef Wehbe, Taha Al Hosary, Abdeltawab Shalaby, Noor Al Shamsi, and Hajer Al Naqbi

hand, the LULC gives information about the land’s physical type and how it is currently being used (i.e., urban, cropland, shrubland, desert, etc.), determining surface properties such as albedo, emissivity and roughness length. While the albedo and emissivity are normally estimated using remote sensing assets such as satellites (e.g., Giri 2012 ; Sun and Schulz 2015 ; Fritz et al. 2017 ; Rwanga and Ndambuki 2017 ), and sometimes through field surveys (e.g., D’Antona et al. 2008 ), the

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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

of convective parameterizations has been obtained for resolutions higher than 4 km (e.g., Kain et al. 2008 ; Weisman et al. 2008 ). This model configuration, as well as the initial and lateral boundary conditions (IC/LBCs) are taken from one ensemble member out of all the ensemble strategies investigated in Part II. In particular, the boundary conditions are extracted from the global ECMWF ensemble prediction system and soil parameters are downscaled from the control member of the ECMWF

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Carolina A. Bieri, Francina Dominguez, and David M. Lawrence

, including the Pantanal wetlands, the plains of Las Pampas, and the semiarid Gran Chaco. Fig . 1. Location of the La Plata basin (red shaded region) within South America. Major cities within the basin are labeled. The black rectangle corresponds to the region of altered SM in the DRY CESM simulation. This region is also used in EOF analysis, but with 1° extensions of the northern and southern boundaries (see text). Mean MERRA-2 root-zone SM wetness fraction and precipitation are also depicted for SESA

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Ayumi Fujisaki-Manome, Greg E. Mann, Eric J. Anderson, Philip Y. Chu, Lindsay E. Fitzpatrick, Stanley G. Benjamin, Eric P. James, Tatiana G. Smirnova, Curtis R. Alexander, and David M. Wright

with previous research using WRF at this horizontal grid spacing for this application (e.g., Shi and Xue 2019 ; Wright et al. 2013 ). Hourly updated Rapid Refresh ( Benjamin et al. 2016a ) fields were used as initial and lateral boundary conditions as currently applied in operations. A one-dimensional lake model implemented in WRF ( Oleson et al. 2013 ) was used for smaller inland lakes. Over the Great Lakes, the control lower boundary condition for the lake surface (i.e., lake

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Susan Stillman, Xubin Zeng, William J. Shuttleworth, David C. Goodrich, Carl L. Unkrich, and Marek Zreda

correlation between PDO and precipitation. However, using instrument records and geostatistical modeling, Guan et al. (2005) suggested that summer total precipitation over northern New Mexico is not correlated to PDO. Whereas Goodrich et al. (2008) examined spatial variability in terms of years to uniformity of total precipitation and computed trends in summer, nonsummer, and annual total precipitation, the current study will look at the interannual variability of the spatial distribution and trends

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A. Senatore, S. Davolio, L. Furnari, and G. Mendicino

, the high-resolution and the increased capability of models in representing relevant physical processes, have improved rainfall forecast skills ( Weusthoff et al. 2010 ; Bauer et al. 2011 ), especially at the small scales particularly relevant for hydrological applications in coastal areas. Notwithstanding the rapid improvement of global NWP accuracy and the related efforts for detailed representation of hydrological processes ( Zsoter et al. 2019 ), currently, at such scales, only an approach

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C. Spence, P. D. Blanken, J. D. Lenters, and N. Hedstrom

), particularly if these changes persist through time. Current Lake Superior water levels have been below normal since 1997, and 147-yr-old low-water marks were set in August and September 2007. Extreme lake levels on Lake Superior are largely driven by hydroclimatic factors ( Stow et al. 2008 ) and can be cyclical. Previous low-water periods in the 1920s and early 1960s can be attributed to low precipitation and runoff into the lake. The current low-water period has been proposed to be anomalous, in that it

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Xiaodong Chen, L. Ruby Leung, Yang Gao, and Ying Liu

. The historical simulation (HIST) is the same as that described and analyzed in Chen et al. (2019a , b) , with a simulation period covering 1 October 2000–30 September 2015, with the first three months used as model spinup. The simulation was driven by lower and lateral boundary conditions from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) ( Mesinger et al. 2006 ), which has also been used with the WRF model in other studies of snowpack in the western United States ( Rasmussen et al. 2011

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