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Sebastian Sippel, Peter Walton, and Friederike E. L. Otto

directly impact-relevant variables, such as floods ( Pall et al. 2011 ; van Oldenborgh et al. 2012 ) or dryness ( Sippel and Otto 2014 ). Since 2012, an annual report has been published by the American Meteorological Society that aims to investigate extreme weather events within a wider climatic context ( Peterson et al. 2012 , 2013 ; Herring et al. 2014 ), which has received large interest both within the scientific community and beyond. Currently, a near-real-time quasi-operational attribution

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Juergen Weichselgartner and Berit Arheimer

current CCA processes, but also the lack of addressing the questions of what kind of information is available, how and for whom is it produced, and to whom is it delivered in which form? Although several authors have emphasized barriers hindering effective knowledge production, transfer, and implementation ( Lemos and Morehouse 2005 ; Moser and Dilling 2007 ; Jasanoff 2010 ; Moser and Ekstrom 2010 ; Weichselgartner and Kasperson 2010 ; Lövbrand 2011 ; Naustdalslid 2011

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Kimberly S. Wolske, Laura V. Rasmussen, James C. Arnott, Margaret Kalcic, and Christine J. Kirchhoff

1. Introduction Current and future impacts of climate change underscore the need for climate information to support societal responses ( Moss et al. 2013 ). Meeting this societal need for information is nontrivial as traditional ways to produce and communicate science often fail to yield usable knowledge to meet users’ needs ( Kirchhoff et al. 2013 ). Engagement with practitioners in the process of creating climate information is believed to accelerate the production of usable knowledge. While

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Kirsti Jylhä, Heikki Tuomenvirta, Kimmo Ruosteenoja, Hanna Niemi-Hugaerts, Krista Keisu, and Juha A. Karhu

regions were reduced in size ( Fraedrich et al. 2001 ; Wang and Overland 2004 ). Shifts from colder to warmer climate types have occurred in Europe as well ( Fraedrich et al. 2001 ; Beck et al. 2006 ; Gerstengarbe and Werner 2008 ). In the future, the anthropogenic global warming, with its associated changes in precipitation, is projected to move the boundaries of the climatic zones farther still ( Lohmann et al. 1993 ; Kalvová et al. 2003 ; de Castro et al. 2007 ; Gao and Giorgi 2008 ; Lemke

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John Y. N. Cho and James M. Kurdzo

and help meteorologists make severe weather warning decisions (e.g., Stensrud et al. 2009 ). Meteorological radars, however, are costly to acquire, operate, and maintain. As we make plans for future sensor networks, including replacement of the current weather radars, benefit monetization is needed to evaluate the trade-off between performance and cost ( Hondl and Weber 2019 ). The chains of causality that link weather radars to societal benefits are vast and complex. We began our investigation

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R. H. Moss, S. Avery, K. Baja, M. Burkett, A. M. Chischilly, J. Dell, P. A. Fleming, K. Geil, K. Jacobs, A. Jones, K. Knowlton, J. Koh, M. C. Lemos, J. Melillo, R. Pandya, T. C. Richmond, L. Scarlett, J. Snyder, M. Stults, A. M. Waple, J. Whitehead, D. Zarrilli, B. M. Ayyub, J. Fox, A. Ganguly, L. Joppa, S. Julius, P. Kirshen, R. Kreutter, A. McGovern, R. Meyer, J. Neumann, W. Solecki, J. Smith, P. Tissot, G. Yohe, and R. Zimmerman

provide essential capacity and knowledge to help all Americans shape and prepare for an uncertain future climate. Another dimension of the sustained assessment concept is to provide access to evolving knowledge and to highlight research needs. While currently available science is robust and based on centuries of research, the science community continues to learn about the interactions of the Earth system with global to local processes. Research across a wide range of disciplines and perspectives is

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Kerry Emanuel

-resolution, detailed models capable of resolving tropical cyclones, using boundary conditions supplied by reanalysis or climate model datasets. This combines the advantage of relatively robust estimates of large-scale conditions by the reanalyses or climate models with the high-fidelity simulation of tropical cyclones by the embedded high-resolution models. As shown by Knutson et al. (2007) and Emanuel et al. (2008) , these techniques are remarkably successful in reproducing observed tropical cyclone

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Michelle D. Hawkins, Vankita Brown, and Jannie Ferrell

. Therefore, Lans Rothfusz, an NWS forecaster at the time, developed a simplified NWS HI later in 1979 by performing multiple regression analysis on data from Steadman’s THI table, resulting in the current NWS equation, which uses only air temperature and relative humidity as inputs ( Rothfusz 1990 ). The HI parameter and guidance on its usage was introduced in an NWS policy document in 1984 ( NWS 1984 ) and remains the primary NWS parameter for expressing the combined effects of temperature and humidity

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Kevin M. Simmons, Paul Kovacs, and Gregory A. Kopp

for Oklahoma for presumed levels of damage reduction. The current research adds to Sutter et al. (2009) by developing an approach to estimating how much damage can be mitigated and conducting a benefit–cost analysis of the enhanced construction mandated by the new building codes adopted by Moore, OK, but applied to the entire state. Tornadoes are different from hurricanes and pose a challenge for researchers since wind fields are significantly more complex and spatially variable than those for

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Johannes Schmetz and W. Paul Menzel

beyond the currently established coordination of meteorological satellite measurements. We freely admit that it would be a paradigm shift in many ways and therefore present significant challenges; however, it would make observations, especially the operational, to-be-sustained part of the satellite observing system, more affordable. We also emphasize that there should always be enough room for innovation and free thinking; this is currently well captured in the principal investigator (PI

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