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Matt K. Gough, Thomas M. Freismuth, Jamie H. MacMahan, John A. Colosi, Sutara H. Suanda, and Nirnimesh Kumar

). ITBs, in the form of internal waves of elevation, typically arrive as a sharp cold front that extends upward into the surface mixed layer ( Walter et al. 2012 ; Woodson 2018 ; Colosi et al. 2018 ; Sinnett et al. 2018 ) and are herein referred to as cold-water internal tidal bores (CITBs). Recent work has highlighted the onshore transport of cold nutrient rich water owing to shoaling CITBs over the inner shelf (e.g., Nam and Send 2011 ; Walter et al. 2012 ; Smith et al. 2016 ; Sinnett et al

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Nickitas Georgas

mesotidal estuary in winter . J. Cold Reg. Eng. , 20 , 95 – 115 . Morse , B. , B. Ringô , E. Stander , J.-L. Robert , D. Messier , and T. Thanh-Quach , 2006b : Growth and decay of estuary ice cover . J. Cold Reg. Eng. , 20 , 70 – 94 . Murty , T. S. , and G. Holloway , 1985 : Influence of marginal ice cover on storm surges . J. Waterw. Port Coastal Ocean Eng. , 11 , 329 – 336 . Nguyen , A. T. , D. Menemenlis , and R. Kwok , 2011 : Arctic ice-ocean simulation with

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Carl V. Gladish, David M. Holland, and Craig M. Lee

around Greenland, being warmed by surface fluxes, or whether West Greenland Current polar water parcels are actually the product of mixing between very cold and very low-salinity PSW and pure Irminger Current waters where they meet south of Denmark Strait. In the first case, the fjord basin temperature could be sensitive to changes in summer air–sea heat fluxes in the Greenland boundary currents, and in the second case it would be more sensitive to changes in mixing at the density front between the

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Julien Jouanno, José Ochoa, Enric Pallàs-Sanz, Julio Sheinbaum, Fernando Andrade-Canto, Julio Candela, and Jean-Marc Molines

fields are computed at each model grid point for different lags ranging between 0 and 11 days ( Fig. 17 ). The model fields are high-pass filtered with a cutoff period of 30 days before computation of the regression coefficients. Fig . 17. Linear lagged regressions of model sea level height (m) and wind stress (N m −2 ) on a cold surge wind index. Lags range from 0 to 11 days. To compute the index, the southward meridional wind stress is spatially averaged in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (from 24

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Leiv H. Slørdal, Eivind A. Martinsen, and Alan F. Blumberg

is rather steep andleads down to the deep ocean of the Norwegian Seawith typical depths of 3000 m. The large-scale dynamicsof this area is strongly influenced by storm-inducedtopographic shelf waves, giving surge and current oscillations with a period of approximately one day(Martinsen et al. 1979; Gordon and Huthnance 1987;Gjevik 1991 ). There is also evidence of strong current16891690JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHYVOLUME 24oscillations with near inertial period, as a consequenceof storm

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Youjia Zou and Xiangying Xi

propagation mechanism of the warm pool (actually a cooler pool) in the WEP also remains debated. Present theories can be generally categorized into three different frameworks, the most prevailing theory considering the westerly wind bursts as a direct trigger in shifting the warm pool eastward ( Lengaigne et al. 2004 ; Fedorov et al. 2014 ; Menkes et al. 2014 ), the next regarding enhanced eastward downwelling equatorial Kelvin waves as a potential driver in generating warming phase in the eastern cold

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Irina I. Rypina, Lawrence J. Pratt, Julie Pullen, Julia Levin, and Arnold L. Gordon

flow field. However, turbulence is not a prerequisite, nor does the flow in question need to be stochastic or exceptionally complex for rapid stirring and mixing to occur. For example, it is known that rapid two-dimensional stirring occurs on both sides of the polar night jet at the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex, where the flow is dominated by long-lived, coherent eddies associated with planetary waves. The velocity fields of the eddies stretch blobs of air on isentropic surfaces into thin

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Stuart D. Smith

coefficient CDS.exchanges exceeding 300 W m-2 in cold air outbreaks over subtropical waters. Heat flux coefficients for individual data runs arelisted in Tables 1 and 2 for cases in which ITs > I-C. We cannot select data in near-neutral conditions in order to look for possible wind-speed depend-.ence of the heat flux coefficient. Neutral heat fluxcoefficients C~.N and neutral 10 m wind speeds U~0shave been calculated to remove stability dependencefrom the data in Tables 1 and 2, using Paulson's(1970

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David A. Williams, Kevin J. Horsburgh, David M. Schultz, and Chris W. Hughes

perturbations (~±1 hPa) and 10-m wind speeds (~10 m s −1 ) in mesoscale systems typically produce centimeter-scale sea surface perturbations, amplification mechanisms are required for large meteotsunamis ( Monserrat et al. 2006 ). This requirement for wave amplification makes meteotsunamis different from storm surges, which are generated over larger time and space scales by cyclones with deep pressure lows (>50 hPa lower than background pressure) and strong 10-m wind speeds (>20 m s −1 ). Amplification up

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Jenson V. George, P. N. Vinayachandran, V. Vijith, V. Thushara, Anoop A. Nayak, Shrikant M. Pargaonkar, P. Amol, K. Vijaykumar, and Adrian J. Matthews

(wind and buoyancy), shear instability, and internal wave breaking. In general, was less than 10 −5 m 2 s −1 during the time series, indicating weak turbulent vertical mixing at the base of the mixed layer ( Fig. 4b ). Exceptions were noticed on 4, 5, 10, and 11 July where was greater than 10 −4 m 2 s −1 . On these days surges of upward salt flux > 1 mg m −2 s −1 were noticed at the base of the mixed layer ( Fig. 4d ). Most of these surges were associated with the shear layer maximum

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