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Marlos Goes, Jonathan Christophersen, Shenfu Dong, Gustavo Goni, and Molly O. Baringer

regional to the whole Atlantic basin, and (iii) allowing the temporal variability of salinity by resolving seasonality and making inferences about interannual to decadal variability of salinity in the Atlantic Ocean. This manuscript is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the dataset used to construct the empirical relationships to estimate salinity from temperature profile data, and provides a description of the validation datasets, which includes the data used in the case study. Section 2

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Hiroshi Uchida, Takeshi Kawano, Toshiya Nakano, Masahide Wakita, Tatsuya Tanaka, and Sonoka Tanihara

decade resistance substituter measurements repeated over two or four years agree well with each other, and the variability is nearly within the resolution of the salinometer (±0.2 × 10 −3 in practical salinity) ( Fig. C1 ). Fig . C1. Linearity errors in practical salinity estimated from measurements of the decade resistance substituter (serial No. E1-13514822) for salinometers with serial Nos. (a) 62556 and (b) 62827. The decade resistance substituter was calibrated by the manufacturer in December

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Rong-Hua Zhang, Dake Chen, and Guihua Wang

effects further act to induce dynamic responses and feedbacks in the coupled climate system of the tropical Pacific (e.g., Schneider and Zhu 1998 ; Miller et al. 2003 ; Timmermann and Jin 2002 ). Over the past decade, remote sensing has led to significant advances in the physical understanding, interpretation, and modeling efforts of ocean biology–related effects on the climate system. In particular, the time series of remotely sensed ocean color data and associated products have revolutionized how

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Feili Li, M. Susan Lozier, and William E. Johns

. 2008 ; Stepanov and Haines 2014 ; Pillar et al. 2016 ), the relationship of this change to observed deep-water mass variability has yet to be determined. Moreover, it has been shown that AMOC changes lack latitudinal coherence on interannual ( Bingham et al. 2007 ; Zhang 2010 ) and decadal time scales ( Lozier et al. 2010 ), such that AMOC changes at are unlikely to reflect AMOC changes in the subpolar North Atlantic on those time scales. Therefore, direct and synoptic observations of the AMOC

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Steven L. Morey and Dmitry S. Dukhovskoy

spatial and temporal coverage to achieve a full understanding of the estuarine structure. For example, in Apalachicola Bay in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico ( Fig. 1 ) time series of water properties have been collected routinely for over a decade, but in few locations. It is readily apparent from the observational time series that the salinity is very nonstationary in that its variability changes considerably over time. This variability in salinity is of particular importance to certain sessile

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Ge Peng, Lei Shi, Steve T. Stegall, Jessica L. Matthews, and Christopher W. Fairall

ice loss (e.g., Comiso 2012 ), with the temperature-forced ice volume decline accounting for three-quarters of the −4% decade −1 total modeled trend ( Rothrock and Zhang 2005 ). Polar oceans are an important part of the world’s oceans in understanding and monitoring weather and climate variability. For example, a warmer Arctic could potentially weaken or halt the Gulf Stream, which could result in colder weather to northwestern Europe ( Hassol 2004 ; highlights can be found online at http

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A. Schiller, S. E. Wijffels, and G. A. Meyers

(MJOs)], seasonal (monsoon), interannual (Indian Ocean “dipole”), and climate change time scales, ranging from weeks to centuries. This paper focuses on the two time scales of intreaseasonal and seasonal variability and associated sampling strategies for Argo floats. Intraseasonal variability in the tropical Indian Ocean and the associated deep convection in the overlying atmosphere are related to the onset and the intensity of the Asian and Australian monsoons and are also suspected to influence

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Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli and Rosalia Santoleri

intra-annual signal related to the westward propagation of a baroclinic signal ( Chiswell 1996 ); decadal/interannual oscillations linked to the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and to the variability in the associated winter rainfall ( Lukas 2001 ); and a weaker component due to local seasonal forcings ( Bingham and Lukas 1996 ). As we will see in section 3a , a strong salinity signal dominates the steric height variations at HOT, making it unfeasible

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John R. Christy, Roy W. Spencer, and William D. Braswell

the warmest temperatures of the 20-yr period occurring in 1998 being over 0.3 K warmer than any previous year due to the strong warm ENSO event. The trend (K decade −1 ) for T 2LT· D through 1997 was −0.01, however, this became +0.06 with the addition of only one more year, 1998. So, even if the anomalies had been known perfectly, the trend of 1979–97 would have been a poor predictor for the trend for 1979–98. The nature of the variability of the climate system requires extreme caution (i

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Richard P. James and Anthony Arguez

1. Introduction Climatological normals, which describe observed properties of atmospheric behavior and variability over years or decades, are widely used and highly valued by science and industry ( Arguez et al. 2012 ). Two of the primary uses of climatological normals are the interpretation of past, current, or expected conditions in reference to the benchmark that the normal provides, and the assessment of likely or possible future outcomes. In the latter role, climatological normals provide

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