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Yuko M. Okumura, David Schneider, Clara Deser, and Rob Wilson

2004 ). Although the SAM is regarded as an internal mode of atmospheric variability ( Limpasuvan and Hartmann 2000 ), atmospheric and climate model studies suggest that both stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases caused an upward trend in the SAM index over recent decades (e.g., Gillett and Thompson 2003 ; Shindell and Schmidt 2004 ; Arblaster and Meehl 2006 ; Miller et al. 2006 ; Cai and Cowan 2007 ; Deser and Phillips 2009 ; Polvani et al. 2011 ; Thompson et al. 2011

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Navid C. Constantinou and Andrew McC. Hogg

heat capacity acts as memory since it results in suppressing or “integrating out” the high-frequency atmospheric variability, enhancing power on longer time scales (~decadal) of the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system. This is the “null hypothesis” for explaining the observed red spectrum of the climate variability. According to the null hypothesis, the ocean’s low-frequency response results solely from the atmosphere’s high-frequency synoptic variability (which, from the ocean’s viewpoint

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Norel Rimbu and Gerrit Lohmann

1. Introduction To assess the presently observed climatic change and possible future changes in climate, it is necessary to fully understand the mechanisms behind past climate variations. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made through the investigation of physical and chemical properties of ice cores from Greenland (e.g., Vinther et al. 2003 ). Ice cores from the Greenland ice sheet provide insight into the variability of atmospheric circulation from synoptic ( Hanna et

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Hui Wang, Arun Kumar, Wanqiu Wang, and Yan Xue

1. Introduction Pacific decadal variability (PDV) is dominated by the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO; Mantua et al. 1997 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ), which is represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Pacific Ocean. Some studies have indicated that the PDO is not a single physical mode, but rather the result of several mechanisms (e.g., Schneider and Cornuelle 2005 ; Liu 2012 ). They include both tropical

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Houk Paek and Huei-Ping Huang

) [we use version 2, which is described in Compo et al. (2011) ] extended reanalysis back to 1871. Because it is based on a temporally more homogeneous subset of observations, the prospect of using 20CR to extract interdecadal and long-term trend has been suggested and debated elsewhere (e.g., Thorne and Vose 2010 , 2011 ; Dee et al. 2011a ). To contribute to this line of research, this study will compare the decadal-to-interdecadal variability and trend in 20CR with their counterparts in other

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

oceanic Rossby waves, yields meridionally confined persistent SST anomalies ( Seager et al. 2001 ; Schneider et al. 2002 ; Nonaka et al. 2006 ; Taguchi et al. 2007 ; Newman et al. 2016 ). Indeed, decadal SST variability in winter exhibits a primary maximum off the east coast of Japan along the SAFZ and a secondary maximum over the subtropical frontal zone ( Nakamura and Kazmin 2003 ). The SST variability in SAFZ exhibits no significant simultaneous correlation with the tropical SST variability

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Francisco J. Álvarez-García, María J. OrtizBevia, and William D. CabosNarvaez

1. Introduction The sea surface temperature (SST) of the North Atlantic Ocean displays large variability on multidecadal and decadal time scales, which has received profuse attention in recent years, on account of its relevance to the long-range potential predictability of climate variations in the North Atlantic sector ( Latif et al. 2006 ). Distinct spatial structures have been associated to each of those time scales in analyses of the observed North Atlantic SST ( Deser and Blackmon 1993

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Yonghui Lei, Brian Hoskins, and Julia Slingo

1. Introduction Climate variability and change present enormous global challenges to the sustainability and security of societies around the world, and China, with its vast population and rapidly developing economy, will have a critical role to play in the coming decades. In many respects, access to sufficient water of appropriate quality will be critical for the sustainable development of China since water influences so many facets of life, from food security and human well-being to the

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Tianyi Sun and Yuko M. Okumura

1. Introduction Historical observations indicate that Pacific climate varies substantially on decadal to interdecadal time scales ( Nitta and Yamada 1989 ; Trenberth and Hurrell 1994 ; Mantua et al. 1997 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ; Minobe 1997 ; Garreaud and Battisti 1999 ; Deser et al. 2004 ; Chen and Wallace 2015 ). The oceanic and atmospheric anomalies associated with Pacific decadal variability (PDV) are organized into a large-scale pattern characterized by opposite sign of sea surface

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Bunmei Taguchi, Shang-Ping Xie, Niklas Schneider, Masami Nonaka, Hideharu Sasaki, and Yoshikazu Sasai

fluxes ( Tanimoto et al. 2003 ) in the KOE region. Coupled ocean–atmosphere model studies support this notion ( Pierce et al. 2001 ; Schneider et al. 2002 ). In a multivariant regression analysis, Schneider and Cornuelle (2005) show that on decadal time scales KE intensity variability is an important contributor to the observed Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) along with the Aleutian low and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). All these studies indicate the importance of understanding the

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