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Timothy W. Cronin

of 0.5 has been widely used. The early studies of radiative–convective equilibrium by Manabe and Strickler (1964) , Manabe and Wetherald (1967) , Ramanathan (1976) , and the early review paper by Ramanathan and Coakley (1978) all took . The daytime-average zenith angle has also been used in simulation of climate on other planets (e.g., Wordsworth et al. 2010 ) as well as estimation of global radiative forcing by clouds and aerosols ( Fu and Liou 1993 ; Zhang et al. 2013 ). To our

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Ian Kraucunas and Dennis L. Hartmann

changes in the shallow-water response to tropical eddy forcing, including the formation of an extratropical wave train when the mean winds are westerly and the layer depth is sufficiently large. Lau and Lim (1984) extended this analysis by considering the combined effects of spherical geometry, nonlinearity, and realistic mean winds. Subsequent studies of stationary waves in the upper troposphere have mainly focused on either the extratropical response to tropical forcing or the equatorward

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Leo J. Donner and Hsiao-Lan Kuo

1 OCTOBER 1984 LEO J. DONNER AND HSIAO-LAN KUO 2849Radiative Forcing of Stationary Planetary Waves LEO J. DONNER National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1 Boulder, CO 80307 HSIAO-LAN KUO Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (Manuscript received 9 January 1984, in final form 5 July 1984

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Matthew Newman, Prashant D. Sardeshmukh, and Cécile Penland

, though possible, is not a frequent occurrence in the atmosphere and cannot by itself explain the general characteristics of observed low-frequency variability on timescales of longer than 10 days. Taken together, Papers I and II suggest that the observed growth of low-frequency anomalies in the troposphere is not predominantly due to barotropic energy transfers from the ambient flow. However, these papers were concerned with the unforced problem, whereas SWB allowed some role for forcing. As they put

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Yang Zhang and Peter H. Stone

) , Cehelsky and Tung (1991) , Lindzen (1993) , and Zurita and Lindzen (2001) . Baroclinic adjustment suggested a tendency of the baroclinic eddies to homogenize the mean flow PV gradient and proposed a preferred equilibrium state as well as a strong feedback between the eddy heat fluxes and the temperature structure. In the baroclinic adjustment scenario, the eddy fluxes are sensitive to the variation of the external forcing (i.e., seasonal forcing and climate change) but the structure of the mean state

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Hye-Yeong Chun, Hyun-Joo Choi, and In-Sun Song

forced gravity waves can contribute to momentum forcing required to drive the quasi-biennial oscillation and semiannual oscillation ( Alexander and Holton 1997 ; Sassi and Garcia 1997 ). There are several numerical modeling studies of convectively forced gravity waves and their generation mechanisms. Pandya and Alexander (1999) showed that the spectral characteristics of convective gravity waves in a quasi-linear simulation forced by diabatic forcing alone is similar to that in a fully nonlinear

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Irina Sandu, Jean-Louis Brenguier, Olivier Geoffroy, Odile Thouron, and Valery Masson

different aerosol properties usually have different histories, which lead to systematic differences in the meteorology, making it difficult, if not impossible, to isolate the effect of the aerosol. Measurements of the large-scale forcings are not accurate enough, and our understanding of the dynamics of stratocumulus is not complete enough, to precisely predict what the LWP of a cloud layer should be. To illustrate this drawback, consider a STBL with a cloud base temperature of about 20°C and a cloud

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James R. Holton

942 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VO~-UME31Forcing of Mean Flows by Stationary Waves~ J~KES R. HOLTON2Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle 98195(Manuscript received 1 February 1974)ABSTRACT It is shown that in the absence of dissipation or of critical levels where the mean zonal flow vanishes thefordng of the mean zonal flow by linearized, quasi-static, stationary

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Joseph Egger and H-D. Schilling

1 MARCH 1984 JOSEPH EGGER AND H.-D. SCHILLING 779Stochastic Forcing of Planetary Scale Flow JOSEPH EGGER AND H.-D. SCHILLINGMeteorologisches Institut der Universitiit Miinchen, Munich, FRG(Manuscript received and in final form 12 October 1983) ABSTRACT Using geopotential height observations we analyze the fluctuations of the barotropic

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Michael T. Montgomery and John Persing

. (2001 , 106–107), for example, explained the dynamical importance of the nonlinear boundary layer in hurricane spinup as follows: As the storm deepens, the cross-isobaric radial inflow in the [marine boundary layer] transports more [absolute angular momentum] from the hurricane environment into the eyewall region than frictional dissipation. The major radial inflow decelerates as it approaches the [radius of maximum wind] where the centrifugal force exceeds [the radial pressure gradient force

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