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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

, including four observatories in continental France and one on Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). 1) The Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research The Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) observatory is located in the western part of the Netherlands (NL; 51.97°N, 4.92°E). The site is located close to the sea and to some of the major European industrial and populated areas. The site is exposed to a large variety of airmass types. In 1973, a 213-m-high meteorological mast was built

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

.g., MesoWest, 17 Oklahoma Mesonet 18 ), the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN; Schaefer et al. 2007 ) and AmeriFlux 19 ( Baldocchi et al. 2001 ), among others ( NRC 2009 ). Today more than half the global population lives in cities. Yet cities, with their many large buildings of varying heights, heavy traffic, and paved streets and parking areas, can create their own distinct local weather (e.g., urban heat island, changes in local precipitation patterns, elevated concentrations of gaseous pollutants

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

obtained in the cold pool were consistent with the acoustic sounder data, and calculations of surface fluxes corroborated the increased turbulence. Bulk flux calculations for MCS wake conditions over tropical oceans readily show that latent heat fluxes dominate in cold pools over tropical oceans. Using soundings and flux measurements obtained aboard the GATE ships, Johnson and Nicholls (1983) mapped the boundary layer structure throughout the cold pool region of one of the tropical oceanic MCSs

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

intensify rapidly in an environment favorable for strong latent heating, low-level convergence, and cyclonic vorticity generation ( Bosart 1981 ). The then-operational LFM-II had no parameterization for latent heat flux as was evident from a comparison of the observed and predicted coastal planetary boundary layer structure (Fig. 22 in Bosart 1981 ). The absence of assimilation of significant-level sounding data into the NMC operational forecast system at that time likely further contributed to the

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

combination of open water, bare soil, and canopy surface evaporation and transpiration. Theoretically, ET represents a turbulent flux of water vapor from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere resulting from the phase change of liquid water. This phase change means that ET is coupled to the surface energy balance via the latent heat of vaporization, and therefore the transfer of energy from the surface to the atmosphere due to evapotranspiration is also referred to as the latent heat flux. If the phase change

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Ismail Gultepe, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martin Gallagher, Luisa Ickes, and Darrel Baumgardner

by modulating the heat and moisture fluxes in the surface layer and lower troposphere ( Curry et al. 1996 ; Beesley and Moritz 1999 ). During Arctic winters when temperatures fall well below −30°C and relative humidity with respect to liquid water (RHw) exceeds 80%, even a shallow layer of ice fog will significantly affect the surface energy budget ( Blanchet and Girard 1995 ; Curry et al. 1990 , 1996 ). Sea ice thickness and snow cover also are impacted because of ice fog’s interaction with

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Joseph J. Michalsky and Charles N. Long

(TWP) site had only central facilities on Nauru Island; in Manus, Papua New Guinea; and in Darwin, Australia. The ARM Mobile Facilities (AMFs) spend months to a year at selected sites. AMFs have the same radiation measurement suite as found at the central facilities of the fixed ARM sites. NSA and AMF deployments in cold regions present special problems for radiometry. Ice buildup on instruments is the primary issue. A 2-yr intensive operational period (IOP), led by Scott Richardson, was conducted

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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman

that had been originally planned ( U.S. Department of Energy 1990 ; appendix A, Stokes and Schwartz 1994 ), with the installation of the millimeter-wave cloud radar (MMCR; see Kollias et al. 2016 ). The following years saw the deployment of the first and second Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites at Manus and Nauru ( Long et al. 2016 ) and the deployment of ARM instrumentation during the year-long Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment and at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites

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David A. Randall, Anthony D. Del Genio, Leo J. Donner, William D. Collins, and Stephen A. Klein

observational constraints. ARM ARSCL data at the Nauru Island site had verified that the depth of cumulus congestus was indeed sensitive to midtropospheric humidity ( Jensen and Del Genio 2006 ). By the time of TWP-ICE, the GISS GCM was using the Gregory (2001) entrainment parameterization, which is based on convective turbulence scalings. The Gregory scheme diagnoses updraft speed w and parameterizes entrainment ε as a function of parcel buoyancy B and updraft speed: ε = CB / w 2 . The

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Kazuyoshi Oouchi and Masaki Satoh

tropical cyclone with a clear eye near the Philippine Islands, as in Fig. 14-1a , and others are transient, creating ensembles in vague forms. What is immediately evident from these panels is the fact that the convection is identified as a patch of CCs of O (100) km scale. Cloud clusters would be accompanied by a mesoscale circulation and interact with various disturbances in the tropics, including equatorial waves. Cloud clusters are known to be a basic, important building block of tropical

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