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L. Bruce Railsback

. Earlier empires, most notably the Roman Empire, occupied parts of two or even three of the continents surrounding the Mediterranean, but they were neither transoceanic nor significantly discontinuous. Table 3. Examples of geographically discontinuous or multicontinental or transoceanic empires. Although no nation presently holds a geographically discontinuous multicontinental transoceanic empire (at least in name), several nations explicitly claim or hold distant islands ( Table 4 ). In addition to

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J. Nalau, S. Becken, S. Noakes, and B. Mackey

islands ( Becken et al. 2014 ), and the benefits of better information about extreme events have been broadly discussed in literature (e.g., Becken et al. 2014 ; Bloodhart et al. 2015 ; Klint et al. 2012 ). Extreme weather events, such as cyclones, droughts, and heat waves typically occur relatively infrequently, but can be highly disruptive and destructive. Changes in climatic conditions that deviate from mean conditions of climate (climatic norms are measured across a 30-yr period) are referred

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Elizabeth L. Malone

any kind) helps to assess the potential for state stability. Where recent trends are projected to continue (e.g., increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, earlier spring onset), policies and actions that build resilience have the additional benefit of building stability. Although estimating impacts of climate change is a necessary part of analyzing national security, so are the possible responses of countries, including transformations in the energy system and competition

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Leon S. Robertson

, without intervention, it will collapse ( Barlas 2009 ). Climate scientists have studied the role of such amplifying feedback on global warming in analyses of water vapor ( Dessler 2013 ), the albedo effect ( Ingram et al. 1989 ), and melting tundra ( Schuur et al. 2009 ). Warming increases evaporation and thus more water vapor in the atmosphere that further retains heat in a feedback cycle. The albedo effect occurs when warmth melts surface snow and ice that reflects heat. The resulting darker land

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E. Coffel and R. Horton

, urban heat island effects, and soil moisture feedbacks, among other mechanisms. This study demonstrates one potential effect of climate change on aircraft operations. However, more work is needed to analyze the effect of heat on ground personnel safety and performance, airport infrastructure, and airline on-time performance. In addition, other potential climate impacts could affect aviation: sea level rise could threaten some airports (LGA is especially vulnerable), and changes in the frequency and

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Michael Robert Nkuba, Raban Chanda, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, Margaret Najjingo Mangheni, David Lesolle, and Edward Kato

the onset of rains ( Gyampoh and Asante 2011 ; Kalanda-Joshua et al. 2011 ). Research reveals that fish behavior may provide climate information for fishing communities ( Leonard et al. 2013 ). Observance of heat by ordinary farmers without using scientific gadgets has been considered a relevant indicator for early warning systems and rainfall seasonality in rural livelihoods ( Nkomwa et al. 2014 ; Ifejika Speranza et al. 2010 ; Zuma-Netshiukhwi et al. 2013 ). This shows that farmers

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Adebayo Oluwole Eludoyin, Augustina Olichikwu Nevo, Peter Adeolu Abuloye, Oyenike Mary Eludoyin, and Olusegun Olufemi Awotoye

in Ondo State, Nigeria. (bottom) Types of farm support by the government. See text for details. 5. Discussion The study area is typical of a sovereignty of agrarian communities in developing countries, with a low level of industrialization. The capital city, Akure, is an emerging, well-planned, urbanized community, where anthropogenic influences have been linked to development of urban heat island phenomenon, even in the year 2001 ( Akinbode et al. 2008 ). This study noticed the effect of

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Vladimir Janković and David M. Schultz

irreversible impacts. For example, contemporary urban climate change policies that prioritize high-intensity but low-frequency events such as heat waves, flooding, sea level rise, and hurricanes downplay chronic, small-scale risks associated with urban heat island, microvariations of temperatures, street-level winds, traffic heat, air conditioning, street cover, and solar glare—all of which shape the day-to-day life of an urban population ( Janković 2014 ). This policy blind spot may well have to do with

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Kendal McGuffie and Ann Henderson-Sellers

political economy of addressing climate crisis in the Earth system: Undermining perverse resilience . New Polit. Econ. , doi:10.1080/13563467.2012.678820, in press . Phillip, A. , 1789 (cited 2011): The voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay with an account of the establishment of the colonies of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island . [Available online at .] Roebuck, J. , 1775 : A comparison of the heat of London and Edinburgh . Philos

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Yujie Wang, Lianchun Song, Chris Hewitt, Nicola Golding, and Zili Huang

. Climate services for urbanization In recent years, the issue of urban climate change has garnered a great deal of attention, and the impacts of global climate change and urbanization will further increase in China ( Zhai et al. 2018 ). Chinese cities are expected to face increasingly serious climate risks, such as urban water logging, large-scale haze, and the urban heat island effect, which threaten the sustainable progress of urbanization in China. The NCC has provided climate services for urban

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