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Mark Z. Jacobson and John E. Ten Hoeve

1. Introduction Urban areas are generally warmer than vegetated areas around them since urban surfaces reduce evapotranspiration and have sufficiently different heat capacities, thermal conductivities, albedos, and emissivities to enhance urban warming ( Howard 1833 ; Oke 1982 ). Several studies have estimated, from data analysis, that the globally averaged urban heat island (UHI) effect may contribute ≤0.1 K to global temperature changes since the preindustrial era ( Jones et al. 1990

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Chee-Kiat Teo, Tieh-Yong Koh, Jeff Chun-Fung Lo, and Bhuwan Chandra Bhatt

, the PCS of which are in time quadrature. The two EOFs are physically based modes. The first EOF is strong and represents the fundamental atmospheric response to potential instability forced by radiation and surface heat flux over land and sea during day and night, respectively. The positive loadings of the second EOF by itself represent the local nocturnal rain features downslope of elevated terrain (e.g., in Sumatra and New Guinea), over coastal land and sea, or inland of the large island of

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C. E. Birch, S. Webster, S. C. Peatman, D. J. Parker, A. J. Matthews, Y. Li, and M. E. E. Hassim

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC) is located in the tropical warm pool and consists of many hundreds of islands with complex coastlines and topography, shallow seas, and high sea surface temperatures (SSTs). It is one of the wettest places on Earth, and the high latent heat release from organized convective activity in the region influences global circulation and climate via downstream Rossby wave responses ( Jin and Hoskins 1995 ; Neale and Slingo 2003 ). On a diurnal time scale

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Steven L. Mullen

occurs as follows: A warm tropical Pacific SST anomaly tends to enhance blockingactivity along the west coast of North America and suppress it near the Aleutian Islands, while a cool midlatitudeNorth Pacific SST anomaly near the dateline tends only to suppress blocking activity near the Aleutian Islands.The combination of a warm tropical SST anomaly and a cool extratropical SST anomaly is more effective inmodifying blocking activity over the midlatitude North Pacific than either SST anomaly acting

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Conor I. Anderson and William A. Gough

’s geographical location near the typical latitudinal limits of the northern polar vortex, its climate is heavily influenced by the interaction of polar and subtropical air masses ( Gough and Sokappadu 2016 ). Additionally, Toronto’s climate is affected by natural and anthropogenic phenomena. The highly urbanized center of Toronto is affected by an urban heat island (UHI), which causes city temperatures to warm above those of surrounding rural areas. Toronto’s urban heat island causes nighttime temperatures

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J. L. Kinter III, K. Miyakoda, and S. Yang

43-yr gridded precipitation dataset over continents and islands from the University of East Anglia Climate Research Unit ( Hulme 1994 ), and the 19-yr global NCEP Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (known as CMAP; Xie and Arkin 1997 ). The SST data are from the analysis produced by the CPC ( Reynolds and Smith 1994 ). We have compared the results based on this dataset with similar calculations made using the Global Ice and SST (GISST) analysis produced by the Hadley

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Li Qi and Yuqing Wang

addition to the local effect, mesoscale topography may have a significant effect on climate at a spatial scale much larger than previously believed. Xie et al. (2001) revealed a fingerprint of the effect from the Hawaiian Islands about 8000 km downstream in the central–western Pacific. The orographic effect of these islands could be limited to about 500 km based on earlier theoretical studies if only the dynamical terrain effect is considered. Xie et al. (2001) then hypothesized that it is the air

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Shayne McGregor, Alexander Sen Gupta, and Matthew H. England

reassessed the role of surface wind forcing (i.e., upper ocean heat content redistribution) versus global mean sea level change (i.e., including the additional contributions of glacier and ice sheet melt along with ocean thermal expansion) on the recent dramatic increase in western equatorial Pacific Island sea level. We find that when the observed estimates of global mean sea level ( Church and White 2011 ) are added to the SWM hindcast sea levels, the SWM hindcast sea levels more closely match the

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Menglin Jin, Robert E. Dickinson, and Da Zhang

rural areas, particularly at night. This elevation of temperatures has been referred to as the “urban heat island” (UHI) ( Oke 1982 ). Many of these previous studies only examined one or a few selected urban areas (e.g., Bornstern 1968 ; Karl and Williams 1987 ; Karl et al. 1988 ; Huff and Vogel 1978 ; Changnon 1978 ; Brest 1987 ; Gallo et al. 1993 ; Hansen et al. 2001 ; Shepherd et al. 2002 ). Since the effects of urbanization vary from city to city as determined by factors of population

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Xiaoling Jiang, Yali Luo, Da-Lin Zhang, and Mengwen Wu

), Changzhou (CZ), and Nanjing (NJ), and two relatively smaller city areas to its south centered around Hangzhou (HZ) and Ningbo (NB), respectively (see Fig. 1a for their locations). Substantial modifications have been made to the surface properties during the past several decades; for example, grass and croplands were replaced by artificial surfaces like concrete and tall buildings over the YRD ( Fig. 1b ). The resultant urban heat island (UHI) and urban canopy effects could contribute to changes in

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