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Jerome A. Smith

. Res. , 103C , 18357 – 18379 . Smith, J. A. , 1993 : Performance of a horizontally scanning Doppler sonar near shore. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 10 , 752 – 763 . 10.1175/1520-0426(1993)010<0752:POAHSD>2.0.CO;2 Smith, J. A. , . 1998 : Evolution of Langmuir circulation during a storm. J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 12649 – 12668 . 10.1029/97JC03611 Smith, J. A. , . 2001 : Continuous time–space sampling of surface currents using sound. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., submitted . Smith

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An-Zhou Cao, Hui Chen, Wei Fan, Hai-Lun He, Jin-Bao Song, and Ji-Cai Zhang

1. Introduction Tides and tidal currents are basic motions in the ocean and play an important role in the studies of other ocean dynamics, such as storm surges, internal tides, and circulations ( Munk 1997 ; Xu et al. 2016 ; Cao et al. 2017 ). In continental shelf areas, strong tidal currents can cause intense shear near the seafloor, which finally contribute to intense turbulent mixing ( Heathershaw 1979 ; Liu and Wei 2007 ; Lozovatsky et al. 2008 ; Yoshikawa et al. 2010 ). In boundary

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G. O. Marmorino and C. L. Trump

. Tech. Man., 226 pp. [Available from RD Instruments, Inc., 9855 Businesspark Ave., San Diego, CA 92131 .]Reed, A. M., R. F. Beck, O. M. Griffin, and R. D. Peltzer, 1990: Hydrodynamics of remotely sensed surface ship wakes. Soc. Nay. Archit. Mar. Eng. Trans., 98, 319-363.Smith, J. A., 1992: Observed growth of Langmuir circulation. J. Geo phys. Res., 97, 5651-5664.--, 1993: Performance of a horizontally scanning Doppler sonar near shore. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10, 752-763.Trump, C. L., G

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Svein Vagle and David M. Farmer

theair-sea interface. In addition to strong turbulence generated by breaking waves, the bubbles will be advectedby Langmuir circulation, fronts, and internal waves(Thorpe 1984a-d) making them useful tracers forstudies of upper-ocean dynamics. Determination of therole bubbles play in these physical processes necessitatesacquisition of profiles of bubble-size distribution as afunction of time and depth. Ideally, such profiles shouldbe acquired remotely so as to avoid interference withthe processes

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A. Birol Kara, Alan J. Wallcraft, and Harley E. Hurlburt

analyze the effects of surface heat flux and surface ocean mixed layer physics, but observations are not adequate to carry out such extensive diagnostic studies at present. In these cases, simulations from ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) that can accurately simulate SST and MLD may be useful in compensating for the sparseness of the oceanic observations and provide a more comprehensive picture. Most bulk mixed layer models are one-dimensional and assume that the mean temperature and

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George O. Marmorino, Clifford L. Trump, and Zachariah R. Hallock

Langmuir circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 12 649–12 668. Thorpe, S. A., 1986: Measurements with an automatically recording inverted echo sounder: ARIES and the bubble clouds. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16, 1462–1478. 10.1175/1520-0485(1986)016<1462:MWAARI>2.0.CO;2 Trump, C. L., N. Allan, and G. O. Marmorino, 1999: Using side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and Doppler radar systems to characterize a convergent surface front. Proc. IEEE Sixth Working Conf. on Current

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Yasuyuki Miyao and Atsuhiko Isobe

. 2000 ; Lathrop et al. 2006 , 2014 ). However, aerial photography of surface currents is still an immature observational technique in coastal waters compared with open oceans, where satellite altimetry indirectly provides surface currents under the assumption of geostrophy. In the 1970s, Assaf et al. (1971) observed surface circulation based on aerial photographs of dye distributions, founding small-scale Langmuir cells within a several-hundred-meter square. However, this was a qualitative

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Peter Sutherland and W. Kendall Melville

was found by Veron et al. (2009) to be consistent with the presence of wind rows, small features related to Langmuir circulations. Spectra indicating such streaks were not, however, universally found. F ig . 3. The 20-min average directional wavenumber spectra of vertical vorticity taken during RaDyO 2009, and separated by 1 h: (a) taken starting 0400 UTC 8 Sep 2009 and (b) taken starting 0500 UTC 8 Sep 2009. White arrows show the mean wind direction, gray arrows show the direction of the wind

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Eric A. D'Asaro

Efron, B. , and Gong G. , 1983 : A leisurely look at the bootstrap, the jackknife and cross-validation. Amer. Stat , 37 , 36 – 48 . Farmer, D. M. , and Li M. , 1995 : Patterns of bubble clouds organized by Langmuir circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr , 25 , 1426 – 1440 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<1426:POBCOB>2.0.CO;2 Graber, H. , Terray E. , Donelan M. , Drennan W. , Van Leer J. , and Peters D. , 2000 : ASIS—A new air–sea interaction spar buoy: Design and performance at

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Naohisa Takagaki, Satoru Komori, Mizuki Ishida, Koji Iwano, Ryoichi Kurose, and Naoya Suzuki

. Iwano , T. Kuramoto , S. Shimada , R. Kurose , and K. Takahashi , 2012 : Strong correlation between the drag coefficient and the shape of the wind sea spectrum over a broad range of wind speeds . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 39 , L23604 , doi: 10.1029/2012GL053988 . 10.1029/2012GL053988 Takagaki , N. , R. Kurose , Y. Tsujimoto , S. Komori , and K. Takahashi , 2015 : Effects of turbulent eddies and Langmuir circulations on scalar transfer in a sheared wind-driven liquid flow

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