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G. O. Marmorino
and
C. L. Trump

. Tech. Man., 226 pp. [Available from RD Instruments, Inc., 9855 Businesspark Ave., San Diego, CA 92131 .]Reed, A. M., R. F. Beck, O. M. Griffin, and R. D. Peltzer, 1990: Hydrodynamics of remotely sensed surface ship wakes. Soc. Nay. Archit. Mar. Eng. Trans., 98, 319-363.Smith, J. A., 1992: Observed growth of Langmuir circulation. J. Geo phys. Res., 97, 5651-5664.--, 1993: Performance of a horizontally scanning Doppler sonar near shore. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10, 752-763.Trump, C. L., G

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Svein Vagle
and
David M. Farmer

theair-sea interface. In addition to strong turbulence generated by breaking waves, the bubbles will be advectedby Langmuir circulation, fronts, and internal waves(Thorpe 1984a-d) making them useful tracers forstudies of upper-ocean dynamics. Determination of therole bubbles play in these physical processes necessitatesacquisition of profiles of bubble-size distribution as afunction of time and depth. Ideally, such profiles shouldbe acquired remotely so as to avoid interference withthe processes

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A. Birol Kara
,
Alan J. Wallcraft
, and
Harley E. Hurlburt

analyze the effects of surface heat flux and surface ocean mixed layer physics, but observations are not adequate to carry out such extensive diagnostic studies at present. In these cases, simulations from ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) that can accurately simulate SST and MLD may be useful in compensating for the sparseness of the oceanic observations and provide a more comprehensive picture. Most bulk mixed layer models are one-dimensional and assume that the mean temperature and

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Peter Sutherland
and
W. Kendall Melville

was found by Veron et al. (2009) to be consistent with the presence of wind rows, small features related to Langmuir circulations. Spectra indicating such streaks were not, however, universally found. F ig . 3. The 20-min average directional wavenumber spectra of vertical vorticity taken during RaDyO 2009, and separated by 1 h: (a) taken starting 0400 UTC 8 Sep 2009 and (b) taken starting 0500 UTC 8 Sep 2009. White arrows show the mean wind direction, gray arrows show the direction of the wind

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Yasuyuki Miyao
and
Atsuhiko Isobe

. 2000 ; Lathrop et al. 2006 , 2014 ). However, aerial photography of surface currents is still an immature observational technique in coastal waters compared with open oceans, where satellite altimetry indirectly provides surface currents under the assumption of geostrophy. In the 1970s, Assaf et al. (1971) observed surface circulation based on aerial photographs of dye distributions, founding small-scale Langmuir cells within a several-hundred-meter square. However, this was a qualitative

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Naohisa Takagaki
,
Satoru Komori
,
Mizuki Ishida
,
Koji Iwano
,
Ryoichi Kurose
, and
Naoya Suzuki

. Iwano , T. Kuramoto , S. Shimada , R. Kurose , and K. Takahashi , 2012 : Strong correlation between the drag coefficient and the shape of the wind sea spectrum over a broad range of wind speeds . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 39 , L23604 , doi: 10.1029/2012GL053988 . 10.1029/2012GL053988 Takagaki , N. , R. Kurose , Y. Tsujimoto , S. Komori , and K. Takahashi , 2015 : Effects of turbulent eddies and Langmuir circulations on scalar transfer in a sheared wind-driven liquid flow

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Eric A. D'Asaro

Efron, B. , and Gong G. , 1983 : A leisurely look at the bootstrap, the jackknife and cross-validation. Amer. Stat , 37 , 36 – 48 . Farmer, D. M. , and Li M. , 1995 : Patterns of bubble clouds organized by Langmuir circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr , 25 , 1426 – 1440 . 10.1175/1520-0485(1995)025<1426:POBCOB>2.0.CO;2 Graber, H. , Terray E. , Donelan M. , Drennan W. , Van Leer J. , and Peters D. , 2000 : ASIS—A new air–sea interaction spar buoy: Design and performance at

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Jerome A. Smith

designed to measurelower-frequency mixed layer motion associated withinternal waves, Langmuir circulation, etc. For this, theyperformed satisfactorily (Smith, Pinkel, and Weller1987). They were not designed to measure surfacewaves. The fact that they did well in this too indicatesthat (i) the technique is well suited to surface waves,as noted, and (ii) it should be possible to do better. Here, the issues involved in designing an acousticDoppler system for surface wave measurement are addressed. For

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Jerome A. Smith
and
Gregory T. Bullard

error of about 12 cm s-~ in each range bin pertransmission (ping). Recording every ping allows thesurface wave directional spectrum to be estimated. Toexamine the underlying lower-frequency motions, 1min averages of the velocity data were also formed.For most of the experiment, data collection alternatedhourly between "wave-mode" runs, in which every pingis recorded (52-min duration), and Langmuir circulation or "LC-mode" runs, recording just l-min averages (68 min). During the initial 8 h of a wind

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A. C. Haza
,
E. D’Asaro
,
H. Chang
,
S. Chen
,
M. Curcic
,
C. Guigand
,
H. S. Huntley
,
G. Jacobs
,
G. Novelli
,
T. M. Özgökmen
,
A. C. Poje
,
E. Ryan
, and
A. Shcherbina

) Langmuir circulation and frontal convergences. To optimize the placement of each deployment, survey lines of drifters were also released. The P3 launches (four releases of three to nine drifters) occurred mostly during the P2 experiment in the same area. For this reason they are included in the P2 group in this study as are short survey line releases around this time. Finally, the last release (“test”) aimed to address the drogue-loss issue, which had become apparent by then. All of these deployments

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