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P. Alpert and M. Rabinovich-Hadar

1. Introduction A vast literature exists on the characteristics of the sea-breeze front (SBF) based on observations, for example, Atkinson (1981) and Simpson (1994) . Until the 1940s, the focus was on surface or near-surface measurements, and since then, the upper-level circulation of the SBF has also been explored with the aid of balloons, airplanes, radar, satellite, Doppler-radar, and more recently, theoretical and/or numerical models, for example, Kimble (1946) , Haurwitz (1947

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Alexander Smirnov, Brent N. Holben, Yoram J. Kaufman, Oleg Dubovik, Thomas F. Eck, Ilya Slutsker, Christophe Pietras, and Rangasayi N. Halthore

with the anthropogenic plumes but also as a result of variability in dust transport from arid and semiarid regions. Measurements made in inland seas (Mediterranean, Red, Black, Baltic, North, South China) and coastal zones yielded generally higher values of optical depth than over open oceanic areas. Optical conditions are greatly influenced by continental aerosols including dust in the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Strong wavelength dependence of τ a ( λ ) for coastal areas and inland seas is

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William M. Drennan, Jun A. Zhang, Jeffrey R. French, Cyril McCormick, and Peter G. Black

Interaction Spar (ASIS) buoy off the Florida coast ( Drennan and Shay 2006 ); flux, état de la mer, et télédétection en conditions de fetch variable (FETCH), from an ASIS buoy in the Mediterranean Sea ( Drennan et al. 2003 ); The Equatorial Pacific Air–Sea CO 2 Exchange Experiment (GASEX), from an ASIS buoy ( McGillis et al. 2004 ); HEXOS, from a tower in the North Sea ( Smith et al. 1992 ; Janssen 1997 ); Risø Air–Sea Exchange (RASEX), from a tower in the Baltic Sea ( Johnson et al. 1998 ); Surface

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H. C. Willett

.Moderate negative temperature-anomalies, primarilyof the winter temperatures, during this recent warmperiod, appear in western Canada and the northwestern United States, inland from the coastal mountainranges, and most markedly from the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea northeastward into Russia.On the southern hemisphere, a slight steady warming has occurred since the 1880-1890 decade, equatorward of 40°S, very similar to that on the northernhemisphere; but poleward of this latitude, the smallamount

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Qingjing Hu, Peiran Yu, Yujiao Zhu, Kai Li, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao

+ exceeded the concentrations of TMA or TMA + in the atmosphere over the Arabian Sea, regardless of whether they were present in the gas or particle phases ( Gibb et al. 1999a ). In marine atmospheric aerosols, high concentrations of DMA + and TMA + are sometimes associated with high biological activity, such as an algal bloom ( Facchini et al. 2008a , b ; Müller et al. 2009 ). DMA + and TMA + in particulate form could originate from sea spray ( Gorzelska and Galloway 1990 ), bursting of bubbles

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Huang-Hsiung Hsu and John M. Wallace

1000 and 500 mb correlationmaps provide information concerning the verticalstructure of each component. The spatial patterns associated with Component 1which we will refer to, for convenience, as the Atlantic(A) pattern, are presented in Fig. 4. The correlationpattern for sea level pressure consists mainly of a northsouth seesaw over western Atlantic with a node around50-N and a secondary correlation center to the northof the Mediterranean Sea. A similar spatial pattern isobserved at the 500 mb

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Anna Trevisan

andTerpestra, 1974) provides evidence that these regionsare cyclogenetic and proves to be an essential improvemeat in prediction. The purpose of the present work isto investigate with simple numerical simulations thecircumstances under which the presence of mountainscan cause or modify the genesis or development of acyclone. Particular attention is paid to the phenomenonof cyclogenesis in the Alpine region, a region where thepresence of other mountain chains and the warm sea tothe south complicate the

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S. Ramachandran

aerosol species would affect the spectral variation of AODs differently. At a given location the aerosol population will have contributions from local sources and long-range transport. Number concentration of each aerosol component is important in determining the composite aerosol optical depth; relative humidity can affect the mode radius and the number concentration of both the smaller- (sulfate) and larger-size (sea salt) particles. For example, during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX

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R. P. Pearce and U. C. Mohanthy

mean tropospheric enthalpy distributions based on FGGE data are described andin'terpreted for the months of May and June 1979. Their detailed spatial characteristics are inferred using 15day means for the region 0-150-E, 40-S-40-N, and the detailed temporal evolutions from time series at dailyintervals for two regions--the Arabian Sea and the larger area 0--150-E, 22.5-S-41.25-N. Vertical motionfields are calculated using O'Brien's method and are used to determine the distributions of moisture

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Ayantika Dey Choudhury, R. Krishnan, M. V. S. Ramarao, R. Vellore, M. Singh, and B. Mapes

generated surface low pressure zone (a heat low—typically capped by high pressure in midlevels because of enhanced thickness) that extends westward toward the Mediterranean Sea ( Bitan and Saaroni 1992 ; Saaroni et al. 2010 ; Tyrlis et al. 2013 ), related geostrophically to the anomalous midtropospheric anticyclone ( Fig. 3 ). Fig . 9. Composite map of OLR anomalies (W m −2 ) for days prior to onset of MTC (days −3, −2, −1). To bring out the role of subseasonal convective signal during evolution of

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