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Yuning Shi, Kenneth J. Davis, Christopher J. Duffy, and Xuan Yu

1. Introduction The predictability of the atmosphere is limited by the chaotic nature of atmospheric turbulence to a time span of the order of one week or less ( Lorenz 1969 ; Smagorinsky 1969 ; Lorenz 1982 ). Earth's surface, however, has “memories” much longer than those of the atmosphere. Significant improvements in short-term climate forecasts as well as weather forecasts can be found by including the modeling of Earth's surface, for example, land surface processes and sea surface

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Bo Dong, John D. Lenters, Qi Hu, Christopher J. Kucharik, Tiejun Wang, Mehmet E. Soylu, and Phillip M. Mykleby

. Kucharik , 2003 : Evaluating the impacts of land management and climate variability on crop production and nitrate export across the Upper Mississippi Basin . Global Biogeochem. Cycles , 17 , 1085 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GB001808 . 10.1029/2001GB001808 Elguindi , N. , S. Somot , M. Déqué , and W. Ludwig , 2011 : Climate change evolution of the hydrological balance of the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas: Impact of climate model resolution . Climate Dyn. , 36 , 205 – 228

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Graham A. Sexstone, Colin A. Penn, Glen E. Liston, Kelly E. Gleason, C. David Moeser, and David W. Clow

. Itkin , J. King , I. Merkouriadi , and J. Haapala , 2018 : A distributed snow-evolution model for sea-ice applications (SnowModel) . J. Geophys. Res. Oceans , 123 , 3786 – 3810 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JC013706 . 10.1002/2017JC013706 López-Moreno , J. I. , S. R. Fassnacht , S. Beguería , and J. B. P. Latron , 2011 : Variability of snow depth at the plot scale: Implications for mean depth estimation and sampling strategies . Cryosphere , 5 , 617 – 629 , https

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F. Chen, W. T. Crow, L. Ciabatta, P. Filippucci, G. Panegrossi, A. C. Marra, S. Puca, and C. Massari

between H23 and ERA5 are seen around the northern coast of the Black Sea. More consistent negative ECC is found between ERA5 and SM2R across a broad swath of eastern Europe and Russia ( Fig. 3c ). Fig . 3. The QC-derived estimates of ECC (a) between the H23 and ERA5, (b) between the H23 and SM2R, and (c) between the ERA5 and SM2R daily rainfall products. The weak ECC found between H23 and both SM2R ( Fig. 3a ) and ERA5 ( Fig. 3b ) is generally consistent with our earlier assumption that error in H23

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Roberto Rudari, Dara Entekhabi, and Giorgio Roth

. The upper-level steering flow is characterized by a low that drifts downstream across Europe but spawns a secondary cyclone in the lee of the western Mediterranean topographic barriers. The secondary system is mesoscale and feeds low-level moisture and energy derived from the western Mediterranean Sea to the local area. The 172 ensemble of cases are verified by detailed inspection of daily weather charts. Of these, 152 independent events are identified that serve to further distinguish the lee

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Moshe Armon, Elad Dente, James A. Smith, Yehouda Enzel, and Efrat Morin

1. Introduction The drylands of the Levant are characterized by meager rainfall amounts ( Fig. 1 ), concentrated in a few convective, spatially spotty, high-intensity and short-duration rainstorms a year ( Goldreich 1994 ; Sharon and Kutiel 1986 ). In these drylands, rainstorms are caused by diverse synoptic-scale patterns, such as the Mediterranean cyclone (MC), the active Red Sea trough (ARST), and subtropical jet stream (STJ)-related disturbances ( Dayan and Morin 2006 ; Kahana et al. 2002

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Yu-shu Zhou, Ze-ming Xie, and Xin Liu

trajectories are represented for the above ground level in Fig. 4 . As seen from the figures, the target particles in the study areas a–d ( Figs. 4a–d ) are mostly from the regions west of Xinjiang, including central Asia, the western part of North Asia, Europe, north Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean. The target particles within all study areas are mainly transported into Xinjiang along the western water vapor channel. Furthermore, Fig. 4 shows that

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Liang Guo, Ruud J. van der Ent, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Marie-Estelle Demory, Pier Luigi Vidale, Andrew G. Turner, Claudia C. Stephan, and Amulya Chevuturi

precipitating within region 1. Therefore, a significant increase of moisture contribution from the Indian Ocean of 10–20 days lifetime in JJA is shown in Fig. 4a . For regions 4 and 5 in DJF ( Figs. 4d,e ), the moisture contributions from the Eurasian continent of 10–20 days lifetime are larger than from other sources. More specifically, moisture from Eurasia originates from eastern Europe and central Asia, which includes several water bodies, for example, the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, and

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N. Rebora, L. Molini, E. Casella, A. Comellas, E. Fiori, F. Pignone, F. Siccardi, F. Silvestro, S. Tanelli, and A. Parodi

1. Introduction The Mediterranean coastal cities, on both southwestern and northeastern sides of Italy, are accustomed to floods and flash floods. The Mediterranean Sea acts as a large heat and moisture reservoir—a source from which convective and baroclinic atmospheric systems get part of their energy. The interaction between convective processes originating on the warm sea and sudden orographic lifting very close to the coast produces heavy rainfalls. It often happens that the rain

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Roni Avissar and Hai Pan

), while the lake is ≈−210 m MSL. North of the lake is Mount Hermon, which culminates at ≈2800 m MSL. About 120 km south of it is the Dead Sea, which is ≈−410 m MSL, and about 45 km west of it is the Mediterranean Sea. This lake, which is perhaps the most precious resource in this arid country, provides more than 50% of the drinking water consumed in Israel. The complexity of the terrain, combined with the different types of soil and ground covers that surround the lake, results in complicated

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