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Gerald M. Stokes

work in ARM. They set the scale of the first site, the southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north-central Oklahoma that covered roughly 150 000 km 2 , and led to both the choices of instrumentation and their siting—leading to the design of the central facility, boundary facilities, and extended facilities described in Cress and Sisterson (2015, chapter 5) and Sisterson et al. (2016 , chapter 6) of this monograph. The organization of these early meetings also helped shape the approach of convening

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

1. Introduction This American Meteorological Society (AMS) 100th-anniversary monograph reviews much of the progress in many disciplines of atmospheric science. Basic research feeds applications. But the applications themselves also demand additional research balanced on the cutting edge of the application and the science on which it is based. The purpose of these chapters on progress in applied meteorology is to report on how that process has progressed as the need has arisen to solve very

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Eric D. Maloney and Chidong Zhang

upper troposphere in the east Pacific just to the west of South America. This is an upper-tropospheric westerly duct region where strong tropical–extratropical interactions take place, and convective activity is a minimum (e.g., Webster and Holton 1982 ; Magaña and Yanai 1991 ). The budget analysis by Yanai et al. (2000) and Chen and Yanai (2000) shows that barotropic energy conversions and an equatorward flux of extratropical/subtropical wave energy are the dominant terms supporting the

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D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and R. A. Ferrare

, the system would stop collecting data momentarily, and then scan the laser beam through the FOV along the north–south axis, fit a polynomial to the data, and then return to the location that maximized the return signal. The process was then repeated along the east–west axis, and then the system would return to operations. Ideally, this would align the laser within the center of the FOV; however, in practice hysteresis in the micromotors that moved the mirror would result in some minor amount of

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D. L. Sisterson, R. A. Peppler, T. S. Cress, P. J. Lamb, and D. D. Turner

.S. Department of Energy 1990 ): 1) a Midwest locale that included Illinois, Indiana, western Ohio, northeastern Missouri, and eastern Iowa; 2) a southern Great Plains locale that initially spanned northern Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and eastern Colorado; and 3) a northern Great Plains locale that extended across Kansas, Nebraska, North and South Dakota, and the eastern halves of Wyoming and Montana. A preliminary assessment favored the Midwest locale because of its greater range of surface energy fluxes and

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Randy A. Peppler, Kenneth E. Kehoe, Justin W. Monroe, Adam K. Theisen, and Sean T. Moore

implementing TWP field campaigns. With the establishment of DQO, the role of TWP site scientist in routine data review gradually but dramatically changed. d. North Slope of Alaska site efforts At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site ( Verlinde et al. 2016 , chapter 8), still another model for data quality assurance was used. Site scientists and site operators jointly subjected data to a systematic program of quality checks (e.g., Delamere et al. 1999 ). Data streams were visually inspected on a daily

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T. J. Wallington, J. H. Seinfeld, and J. R. Barker

North America, Europe, and Asia. They found that prior to 2000 the average increase in ozone at all sites was approximately 1% yr −1 relative to the concentrations in 2000. At most sites, particularly in Europe, the rate of increase slowed after 2000 such that ozone levels are decreasing at some sites in some seasons, particularly in summer. Oltmans et al. (2013) examined changes in tropospheric ozone over the period 1970–2010. At midlatitudes in the Northern Hemisphere there was a significant

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Ulrich Schumann and Andrew J. Heymsfield

. 3-7 ). Fig . 3-12. (left) Cirrus coverage (for τ > 0.1) in a North Atlantic region, shortly (top) before (0000 UTC) and (bottom) after (0445 UTC) passage of a large number of airliners from North America to Europe ( Graf et al. 2012 ). (right) Diurnal cycle of (top) cirrus coverage and (bottom) LW RF in the North Atlantic region vs time of day as derived from Meteosat observations, for 8 individual years (thin lines) and in the 8-yr mean (thick lines), and as modeled with CoCiP (thick dashed

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

: Priorities for the North American THORPEX Program . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 89 , 335 – 346 , . 10.1175/BAMS-89-3-335 Morss , R. E. , and Coauthors , 2017 : Hazardous weather prediction and communication in the modern information environment . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 98 , 2653 – 2674 , . 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0058.1 Mortimore , M. , 1989 : Adapting to Drought: Farmers, Famines and Desertification in West Africa

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Jeffrey L. Stith, Darrel Baumgardner, Julie Haggerty, R. Michael Hardesty, Wen-Chau Lee, Donald Lenschow, Peter Pilewskie, Paul L. Smith, Matthias Steiner, and Holger Vömel

1. Introduction The modern science of meteorology has its roots in the development of the basic instrumentation for measuring the fundamental properties of the atmosphere, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind speed and direction. These were in use long before the American Meteorological Society (AMS) was established in 1919. Historical accounts [e.g., National Research Council ( NRC) 1958 ] credit the invention of the telegraph in the mid-nineteenth century as a turning point in

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