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Benjamin D. Reineman, Luc Lenain, and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction Measurements of sea state and air–sea fluxes have historically been made from ships, buoys, and other platforms, but these essentially fixed-point measurements, over the time scales of surface wave and atmospheric processes, provide no observations of the spatial evolution and distribution of surface fluxes and the wave field. Aircraft-based measurements are an effective means to sample atmospheric and oceanic phenomena over a wide range of conditions and locations, and are also

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Ellis E. Remsberg, Kenneth V. Haggard, and James M. Russell III

geopotential height. Observedwave motions in the stratosphere are mainly planetarywaves 1, 2, and 3. The appearance of this class of largescale waves results from the selective filtering propertyof the upper atmosphere, which allows large-scale horizontal waves to propagate vertically while restrictingthe propagation of smaller-scale waves. The temporalscales for these planetary waves range from about oneto four weeks, and they should be easily detected withthe LIMS sampling pattern. Another class of

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Carl Wunsch

thus the product is to a degree self-compensating. Fennel and Lass (1989) formulate the problem of a mixed layer over an exponential N ( z ), but no new phenomena appear. REFERENCES Bobrovich, A. V. , and Reznik G. M. , 1999 : Planetary waves in a stratified ocean of variable depth. Part 2. Continuously stratified ocean . J. Fluid Mech. , 388 , 147 – 169 . Chiswell, S. M. , 2006 : Altimeter and current meter observations of internal tides: Do they agree? J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 36

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Matthew Dzieciuch, Walter Munk, and Andrew Forbes

satellite conditions. Errors are less than 10 m rms, as demonstrated by comparing the GPS acousticsoume positions with Doppler-inferred positions from a receiver site 9200 km away. Offsets from a steady courseheld for 20 miles are of the order of 100 m, and could be the result of orbital surface velocities associated withinternal waves. We suggest that such GPS measurements, taken routinely while under way, might produceuseful data concerning small-scale oceanographic processes.1. Introduction We

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Amanda M. Plagge, Douglas Vandemark, and Bertrand Chapron

resulting ocean circulation ( Kara et al. 2007 ), as well as atmospheric boundary layer modifications ( Chelton et al. 2004 ; O’Neill et al. 2005 ; Chelton et al. 2006 ). As part of these issues, there is increased recognition of the fundamental effect of surface currents on near-surface wind speeds derived using satellite microwave systems. Winds inferred using these sensors rely on changes in surface backscatter or emission tied to the geometrical roughness changes driven by surface wind waves. In

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April L. Hiscox, Carmen J. Nappo, and David R. Miller

2002 ) have used remote sensing to establish the shape, size, or optical property changes in a plume over time. Experimental data of this nature are needed to determine relationships between turbulence, wave activity, and dispersion in stable nighttime conditions, where dispersion models currently do not perform well. Large coherent motions and increased levels of turbulence are often observed in the stable planetary boundary layer (PBL) above forest canopies (see, e.g., Raupach et al. 1996

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Rebecca A. Woodgate

inertia–gravity wave frequency becomes of order f, the Coriolis parameter. This frequency change is particularly noticeable in the barotropic mode, where the inertia–gravity wave frequency is generally very much greater than f , and offers a solution to the usual problem of initialization shocking ( Barwell and Bromley 1988 ). The analysis predicts optimum values of the nudging coefficient α c (optimum in the sense of minimizing the convergence time τ of the assimilation). For assimilation of

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Clifford Rufenach

adjustment. This profile can be modified by the boundary layer stability and the long ocean waves; see, for example, Makin et al. (1995) . The buoy winds were acquired at heights of 3.8 and 5 m for the equatorial and midlatitude buoys, respectively. This height difference implies the midlatitude wind speed is, on average, about 2% larger than the equatorial winds using a neutrally stratified atmosphere based on an average sea state, that is, when z 0 ≈ 10 −5 m ( Blake 1991 ). Therefore, the winds are

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C. Kiemle, M. Kästner, and C. Ehret

.5 km and an amplitudeof 100-450 m in the residual layer. Additional radiosonde data and the analysis of the synoptic situation revealthat this wave structure is part of a wind shear-driven gravity wave.1. Introduction The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the mostimportant part of the atmosphere to the biosphere.Most of the interactions between the atmosphere andthe biosphere, the ocean and the solid earth take placewithin this layer. The PBL is defined as that part ofthe atmosphere that is

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Yuhang Zhu, Yineng Li, and Shiqiu Peng

the TC track forecast still has a great potential to be improved. Because of the high impact of TCs, more and more operational agencies or research institutes participate in the TC forecast of the NWP, including the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO). This paper introduces a real-time Regional Forecast System of the SCS Marine Environment (denoted as RFSSME) established in the SCSIO and its performance in the track and accompanying sea waves forecasts of Supertyphoon Mangkhut (2018

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