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Florian Lemarié, Hans Burchard, Laurent Debreu, Knut Klingbeil, and Jacques Sainte-Marie

FIRST COMMODORE WORKSHOP: COMMUNITY FOR THE NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE GLOBAL, REGIONAL, AND COASTAL OCEAN What : A total of 47 participants from 9 countries representing 15 different oceanic numerical models met to review our current understanding of future challenges in the design of oceanic dynamical cores. When : 17–19 September 2018 Where : Paris, France Oceanic numerical models are used to understand and predict a wide range of processes from global paleoclimate scales to short

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Thomas Spengler, Ian A. Renfrew, Annick Terpstra, Michael Tjernström, James Screen, Ian M. Brooks, Andrew Carleton, Dmitry Chechin, Linling Chen, James Doyle, Igor Esau, Paul J. Hezel, Thomas Jung, Tsubasa Kohyama, Christof Lüpkes, Kelly E. McCusker, Tiina Nygård, Denis Sergeev, Matthew D. Shupe, Harald Sodemann, and Timo Vihma

parameterization for drag as a function of ice fraction, thickness, and stability, which performs well, though further work is required to constrain surface roughness. Francois Massonnet showed that increasing the horizontal resolution of an atmospheric model improves the forecast skill for low-level temperatures, while sea ice predictive skill increases with higher ocean resolution. Andrew Roberts highlighted that high-resolution fully coupled regional models can enable evaluation of coupled dynamics using

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Donald A. Wilhite, Kimberly C. Morrow, and Martha Shulski

—these are some of the weather effects currently observed in the central United States that might well have their origin in the rapidly warming Arctic. These and other implications of Arctic warming were among the topics discussed at a fall 2015 workshop, Implications of a Changing Arctic on Water Resources and Agriculture in the Central U.S ( Wilhite and Morrow 2016 ). The United States assumed chairmanship of the Arctic Council in April 2015, making the workshop topic timely. Given the importance of

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Jianping Li, Richard Swinbank, Ruiqiang Ding, and Wansuo Duan

of extreme climate events and a key part of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) program. As Earth's climate changes over the coming years, the likelihood of extreme weather events will change most when natural and anthropogenic effects combine. The International Commission on Dynamical Meteorology (ICDM) of the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) organized its 2012 international workshop 1 to better

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Dragana Bojovic, Roberto Bilbao, Leandro B. Díaz, Markus Donat, Pablo Ortega, Yohan Ruprich-Robert, Balakrishnan Solaraju-Murali, Marta Terrado, Deborah Verfaillie, and Francisco Doblas-Reyes

, at decadal time scale, the shortness of the observational records by comparison to the time scale of interest strongly limits our ability to evaluate model performance. Knowing how much variability is externally or internally driven is key to understand the sources and limits of climate predictability. At regional scale particularly, simulations from CGCMs fed with historical external forcing show large differences, highlighting model uncertainties and the importance of internal variability. Due

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Youngjean Choi, Song-Lak Kang, Jinkyu Hong, Sue Grimmond, and Kenneth J. Davis

various ways to create distinct local weather environments characterized by mesoscale and microscale urban heat island effects, urban flooding, changes in precipitation patterns, elevated concentration levels of gaseous pollutants and aerosols, and street canyon winds. However, these complexities and challenges in the megacities of East Asia, Crawford predicted, are truly a “land of opportunity” for meteorological research and prudent urban development. SCIENTIFIC ISSUES FACING A MEGACITY PROJECT. Sue

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Jian Ling, Chongyin Li, Tim Li, Xiaolong Jia, Boualem Khouider, Eric Maloney, Frederic Vitart, Ziniu Xiao, and Chidong Zhang

-level troughs, potential vorticity anomalies, and moisture and temperature advection. Its dipole heating structure produces a stronger extratropical response than monopole heating. Most MJO effects on weather systems also depend on the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle and other factors. Even when MJO teleconnections are well reproduced in state-of-the-art numerical models, its impact on the Euro-Atlantic sector is still too weak. ENSO modulation of the MJO is complex because of its diversities and

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Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Mary H. Hayden, Daniel A. M. Villela, Cynthia C. Lord, Uriel D. Kitron, José Joaquín Carvajal, Daniel C. P. Câmara, and Izabel C. dos Reis

to container characteristics play an important role in the proliferation of Ae. aegypti. The spatial components of arbovirus ecology and risk modeling were also emphasized throughout the workshop. Spatial tools for ecoepidemiological research have facilitated new insights on landscape determinants of disease transmission and the effects of climate change. Opportunities and limitations in using spatial tools to capture natural and human systems in arbovirus transmission are evident in recent work

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Dong L. Wu, Bryan A. Baum, Yong-Sang Choi, Michael J. Foster, Karl-Göran Karlsson, Andrew Heidinger, Caroline Poulsen, Michael Pavolonis, Jérôme Riedi, Robert Roebeling, Steven Sherwood, Anke Thoss, and Philip Watts

cloud optical thickness (COT). These cloud parameter retrievals are important for understanding near-term (nowcasting), short-term (weather forecasting), medium-term (regional monitoring), and decadal (climate monitoring) Earth’s system variabilities, as well as for potential improvements in the cloud and convection parameterizations adopted in weather and climate models. The Cloud–Aerosol–Water–Radiation Interactions (ICARE) Data and Services Center website ( ) from the

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S. A. Tessendorf, B. Boe, B. Geerts, M. J. Manton, S. Parkinson, and R. Rasmussen

observational technologies, is in the ability to better define windows of seeding opportunity and to detect a seeding response, as recently demonstrated in the Snowy Mountains studies. Moreover, the use of model reanalysis datasets or high-resolution regional climate model output to study the climatology of seeding conditions over mountain barriers where observations are limited—or not available at all—has been instrumental in evaluating the fraction of winter storms that are “seedable.” CHALLENGES REMAIN

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