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Aseem R. Sharma and Stephen J. Déry

gradients within the watersheds influence local precipitation and runoff processes across this region ( Jarosch et al. 2012 ; O’Neel et al. 2015 ; Reynoldson et al. 2005 ; Richardson and Milner 2005 ). The warm, moist air masses that result in heavy precipitation and floods in BCSAK are often associated with midlatitude horizontal water vapor transport through elongated moisture plumes emanating from the North Pacific Ocean called atmospheric rivers (ARs), also dubbed Pineapple Expresses ( Ralph et

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Mark R. Jury

1. Introduction Lake Malawi is located in the African Rift Valley (center: 13°S, 34.5°E) with a basin area of 150 000 km 2 . The lake is deep (>300 m) with volume of ~8.4 × 10 9 m 3 , an area of 29 000 km 2 , and is 600 km north–south by ~40 km east–west at an elevation of 474 m. There are four major rivers providing inflow to the lake, while the Shire River is the southern outlet extending 400 km from Mangochi (14.5°S) to the Zambezi River. Over the first 130 km, the river meanders across a

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M. F. P. Bierkens and L. P. H. van Beek

1. Introduction The ability to properly forecast river discharge at seasonal time scales is extremely beneficial to society. By searching for accurate predictions of river discharge for the coming season, one may improve reservoir management and help to ensure drinking water and food supply, hydropower generation, and river navigability ( Trigo et al. 2004 ; Wilby et al. 2004 ; Cherry et al. 2005 ). This justifies the many attempts to relate river discharge to predictable, slowly varying

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Hector Macian-Sorribes, Ilias Pechlivanidis, Louise Crochemore, and Manuel Pulido-Velazquez

1. Introduction Predicting the hydrological response in a river basin over the coming seasons can be of significant added value for water resources management ( Contreras et al. 2020 ; Lavers et al. 2020 ). Recent investigations have demonstrated the benefits from the use of seasonal streamflow forecasting services at large (i.e., continental) and regional scales ( Crochemore et al. 2020 ; Y. Li et al. 2017 ; Pechlivanidis et al. 2020 ; Wanders et al. 2019 ). Statistical streamflow

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Erika K. Wise, Connie A. Woodhouse, Gregory J. McCabe, Gregory T. Pederson, and Jeannine-Marie St-Jacques

1. Introduction Described as an “unpredictable river in an unpredictable landscape” ( Galat et al. 2005 , p. 431), the 3726-km-long Missouri River ( Fig. 1 ) flows through a wide variety of climatic, geologic, and topographic zones from its headwaters at the Continental Divide to its confluence with the Mississippi River, traversing parts of the Rocky Mountain, Interior Plains, and Interior Highlands physiographic provinces ( Lettenmaier et al. 1999 ; Galat et al. 2005 ). The Missouri River

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Kichul Jung, Taha B. M. J. Ouarda, and Prashanth R. Marpu

used in RFA have not evolved much in recent decades. Noteworthy gains could result from the integration of drainage network features as new variables in group delineation and regional transfer models, as the characterization of river networks depends on climatic, physiographic, and topographic constraints ( Horton 1945 ; Daniel 1981 ; Burbank 1992 ), and flood dynamics are correlated with the drainage density of a basin ( Pallard et al. 2009 ). Information on river network types and their

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Elizabeth A. Clark, Justin Sheffield, Michelle T. H. van Vliet, Bart Nijssen, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1. Introduction River runoff is an important term in the global land and ocean water balances. On global average, roughly 30%–40% of precipitation falling over land reaches the oceans as river runoff (e.g., Baumgartner and Reichel 1975 ; Trenberth et al. 2007 ). In addition to its role in the global water balance, humans depend on river flows to provide municipal and agricultural water supply, transportation, electricity, recreation, and many other uses. Several recent studies have examined

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Augusto C. V. Getirana, Aaron Boone, Dai Yamazaki, Bertrand Decharme, Fabrice Papa, and Nelly Mognard

climate system variability. Continental surface waters also influence the surface energy balance and feedback effects between the land surface and atmosphere ( Krinner 2003 ; Mohamed et al. 2005 ). They also play an important role on water discharges of large rivers, sediment dynamics ( Dunne et al. 1998 ), and freshwater chemistry (e.g., Melack et al. 2004 ). Finally, wetlands have been shown to have a significant impact on the interannual variability of global methane emissions ( Bousquet et al

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Junxia Li, Xueping Bai, Yuting Jin, Fangbo Song, Zhenju Chen, Lixin Cai, Fenghua Zou, Mengzhu Jiang, Ruixin Yun, and Zhaoyang Lv

1. Introduction One of the major impacts of global warming is the change in terrestrial hydrological system and cycles ( Donnelly et al. 2017 ; Mondal and Mujumdar 2012 ; Peña-Gallardo et al. 2019 ; Xie et al. 2015 ), including spatially complex trend patterns of river discharge ( Dai et al. 2009 ; Gudmundsson et al. 2019 ; Liu et al. 2019 ; Tananaev et al. 2016 ) and the frequency and intensity of extreme hydrological events ( Donat et al. 2014 ; Ji et al. 2015 ; Muñoz et al. 2016

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Michael J. DeFlorio, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, David A. Lavers, F. Martin Ralph, and Frédéric Vitart

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow plumes of strong horizontal water vapor transport that are typically found in the midlatitudes ahead of the cold front of an extratropical cyclone ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ; Neiman et al. 2008 ; Cordeira et al. 2013 ; American Meteorological Society 2017 ). They can intensify downstream precipitation and influence flooding, snowpack, and water availability (e.g., Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005 , 2006 ; Neiman et al. 2008

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