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Marcello Gugliotta, Jonathan G. Fairman Jr., David M. Schultz, and Stephen S. Flint

sediments expel water and contract because of a salinity contrast). The finer-grained beds also contain bidirectional ripples, interpreted as due to the influence of tides. The coarser-grained beds have been interpreted as being deposited during river-flood conditions, whereas the finer-grained beds represent low-stage interflood conditions ( Gugliotta et al. 2015 ; Figure 4 ). Figure 3. Representative photos of interbedding from the Lajas Formation. (a) Alternations of river-flood beds and mixed

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Diandong Ren and Ann Henderson-Sellers

transpiration term. The effects from the soil water content, the ability of the soil to conduct water to the roots, and even the water logging and soil water salinity can be incorporated into ω. The contribution from the vegetation type as well as its developmental stage can be incorporated into R s . The atmospheric demand (e.g., energy supply, vapor pressure deficit, and wind speed), as pioneered by Penman ( Penman 1948 ), can be incorporated into T r . In numerical modeling, K is usually

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Dev Niyogi, Elin M. Jacobs, Xing Liu, Anil Kumar, Larry Biehl, and P. Suresh C. Rao

, including Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission ( Kerr et al. 2010 ) and the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010 ). While these products cover large areas, the spatial resolution is often coarse (e.g., 35–50 km for SMOS, 10 km for SMAP) and measure only the top 5 cm of soil. This combined with the difficulty to validate these products make them unsuitable for some applications requiring soil water storage dynamics in the entire root zone (~0–100 cm

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Avijit Gangopadhyay, Ayan H. Chaudhuri, and Arnold H. Taylor

the model, including temperature and salinity, are configured for the North Atlantic grid using Levitus climatology. Detailed description of this model, its skill assessment, and relevant results were presented in Chaudhuri et al. (2011a , b) . A major goal of this effort was to study the mean response of the GS to representative low and high NAO condition/forcing. This model was able to realistically reproduce the GS path ( Chaudhuri et al. 2011a ) and was then used to study the impact of

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Viorel Badescu

may become thinner in the future, resulting in H 2 S bubbles entering the atmosphere (e.g., Humborg et al. 1997 ). Both the salinity and the potential temperature increase with depth in the Black Sea waters. Data reported in Figure 1 of Neretin and Volkov ( Neretin and Volkov 1999 ) are used in this paper. They refer to the seawater vertical temperature distribution measured on 7 November 1993 at station 4010 (43°30′N, 31°45′E; sea depth: 1910 m). Studies of the hydrophysical and hydrochemical

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Vincent Bustillo, Reynaldo Luiz Victoria, Jose Mauro Sousa de Moura, Daniel de Castro Victoria, Andre Marcondes Andrade Toledo, and Erich Collicchio

low salinity of small rivers draining thick, sandy soils in central Amazonia. Conversely, the accentuation of trends observed downstream seems to be due to organic matter decay, which is expected to take place in the floodplain as water slowly enters the stream channel from temporary storage. This leads to the release of CO 2 ( 13 C depleted) and nitrogenous dissolved species (NO 3 − and DON) and symmetrically to the removal of O 2 . In the model M2, outputs are adjusted by prescribing ad

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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, and David Erickson

with Levitus mean annual temperature and salinity, then spun up for 500 yr in a physics-only mode. Overall ecodynamics, biogeochemistry, and photochemistry were implemented simultaneously at this point. A minimum time scale often cited for approach to the upper-ocean biotic steady state is 3 yr ( Sarmiento et al. 1993 ; Moore et al. 2002 ; Chu et al. 2003 ). Results reported here are extracted from no earlier than the third full annual cycle. Although carbon monoxide is controlled within the

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Shuguang Liu, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Lena R. Boysen, James D. Ford, Andrew Fox, Kevin Gallo, Jerry Hatfield, Geoffrey M. Henebry, Thomas G. Huntington, Zhihua Liu, Thomas R. Loveland, Richard J. Norby, Terry Sohl, Allison L. Steiner, Wenping Yuan, Zhao Zhang, and Shuqing Zhao

change adaptation policies . Global Environ. Change , 23 , 1476 – 1487 , doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.07.022 . 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.07.022 Durack , P. J. , S. E. Wijffels , and R. J. Matear , 2012 : Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle intensification during 1950 to 2000 . Science , 336 , 455 – 458 , doi: 10.1126/science.1212222 . 10.1126/science.1212222 Eakin , H. C. , M. C. Lemos , and D. R. Nelson , 2014 : Differentiating capacities as a means to

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