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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

Earth’s oceans, including effects on circulation and salinity near the mouth of large rivers. For example, the thermohaline circulation is closely linked to the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean basin ( Driscoll and Haug, 1998 ). In semiclosed inland seas, such as the Mediterranean, circulation is strongly influenced by riverine inputs of freshwater. River discharge plays a key role in transport of dissolved and particulate materials within and from all the continents ( Ludwig and Probst, 1998

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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

poleward. While the Leeuwin Current is primarily a winter current, it does flow all year and is characterized by low salinity water. Expectations are that the Leeuwin Current, in providing a flow of warm, more southerly waters, may have a role to play in supporting the development of those tropical cyclones that occur in late spring (November) and early autumn (March). This makes this region a climatologically sensitive basin because the warming of the ocean surface may significantly change the genesis

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Marcello Gugliotta, Jonathan G. Fairman Jr., David M. Schultz, and Stephen S. Flint

sediments expel water and contract because of a salinity contrast). The finer-grained beds also contain bidirectional ripples, interpreted as due to the influence of tides. The coarser-grained beds have been interpreted as being deposited during river-flood conditions, whereas the finer-grained beds represent low-stage interflood conditions ( Gugliotta et al. 2015 ; Figure 4 ). Figure 3. Representative photos of interbedding from the Lajas Formation. (a) Alternations of river-flood beds and mixed

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

climatological-mean state of 1 January. Present-day oceanic temperature and salinity were used to initialize the ocean model. It is necessary to have the upper ocean reach a reasonable state of equilibrium to investigate interannual climate variability ( Kantha and Clayson 2000 ). In our simulations, the annual-mean SST takes approximately 10 to 20 years to reach equilibrium, which is generally consistent with previous studies ( Abe et al. 2003 ; Wohlfahrt et al. 2004 ; Kitoh 2004 ). Deep soil moisture

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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, and David Erickson

with Levitus mean annual temperature and salinity, then spun up for 500 yr in a physics-only mode. Overall ecodynamics, biogeochemistry, and photochemistry were implemented simultaneously at this point. A minimum time scale often cited for approach to the upper-ocean biotic steady state is 3 yr ( Sarmiento et al. 1993 ; Moore et al. 2002 ; Chu et al. 2003 ). Results reported here are extracted from no earlier than the third full annual cycle. Although carbon monoxide is controlled within the

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Vincent Bustillo, Reynaldo Luiz Victoria, Jose Mauro Sousa de Moura, Daniel de Castro Victoria, Andre Marcondes Andrade Toledo, and Erich Collicchio

low salinity of small rivers draining thick, sandy soils in central Amazonia. Conversely, the accentuation of trends observed downstream seems to be due to organic matter decay, which is expected to take place in the floodplain as water slowly enters the stream channel from temporary storage. This leads to the release of CO 2 ( 13 C depleted) and nitrogenous dissolved species (NO 3 − and DON) and symmetrically to the removal of O 2 . In the model M2, outputs are adjusted by prescribing ad

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Viorel Badescu

may become thinner in the future, resulting in H 2 S bubbles entering the atmosphere (e.g., Humborg et al. 1997 ). Both the salinity and the potential temperature increase with depth in the Black Sea waters. Data reported in Figure 1 of Neretin and Volkov ( Neretin and Volkov 1999 ) are used in this paper. They refer to the seawater vertical temperature distribution measured on 7 November 1993 at station 4010 (43°30′N, 31°45′E; sea depth: 1910 m). Studies of the hydrophysical and hydrochemical

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Shuguang Liu, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Lena R. Boysen, James D. Ford, Andrew Fox, Kevin Gallo, Jerry Hatfield, Geoffrey M. Henebry, Thomas G. Huntington, Zhihua Liu, Thomas R. Loveland, Richard J. Norby, Terry Sohl, Allison L. Steiner, Wenping Yuan, Zhao Zhang, and Shuqing Zhao

change adaptation policies . Global Environ. Change , 23 , 1476 – 1487 , doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.07.022 . 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.07.022 Durack , P. J. , S. E. Wijffels , and R. J. Matear , 2012 : Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle intensification during 1950 to 2000 . Science , 336 , 455 – 458 , doi: 10.1126/science.1212222 . 10.1126/science.1212222 Eakin , H. C. , M. C. Lemos , and D. R. Nelson , 2014 : Differentiating capacities as a means to

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