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Bruce A. Warren

1. Introduction In stationary conditions at a level sea surface, the vertical velocity ( w ) that is induced by evaporation ( E ) and precipitation ( P ) is nearly ( E − P ). In recognition that the mass flux into (or out of) the atmosphere is of freshwater alone, attempts have been made to improve the representation: w = ( E − P )/(1 − S ), where S is the mass-fraction salinity, at the sea surface (e.g., Schmitt et al. 1989 ); or w = ρ F ( E − P )/[ ρ (1 − S )], where ρ is

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Ayan H. Chaudhuri, Avijit Gangopadhyay, and James J. Bisagni

attributed to Ekman drifts related to stronger westerlies in positive NAO phases. Lohmann et al. (2009) investigate the strength of the SPG to persistent positive and negative NAO forcing and indicate a nonlinear response. NAO-induced salinity changes in the eastern SPG ( Herbaut and Houssais 2009 ) show that salinity anomalies are mainly driven by local wind stress. Furthermore, Reverdin (2010) examines 115 yr of measurements from the northeast North Atlantic and finds a significant correlation

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Lynne D. Talley

VOLUME 15 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY JUNE 1985Ventilation of the Subtropical North Pacific: The Shallow Salinity Minimum LYNNE D. TALLEYUniversity of California-San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093(Manuscript received 26 October 1984, in final form 5 February 1985)ABSTRACT The shallow salinity minimum of the subtropical North Pacific is shown to be a feature of the ventilated

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Shinya Kouketsu and Ichiro Yasuda

1. Introduction The Kuroshio Extension is an eastward-flowing jet current that appears after the Kuroshio separates from the east coast of Japan near the Boso Peninsula. This region is one of the main formation sites of the salinity minimum that characterizes North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), which is found at depths of 200–800 m in the subtropical gyre ( Yasuda et al. 1996 ; Talley 1997 ; Hiroe et al. 2002 ). Warm saline water is transported into the Kuroshio Extension region by the

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Eric S. Posmentier

298 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME7The Generation of Salinity Finestructure by Vertical Diffusion~ F.P~C S. POSMENTIERInsti~ul~ of Ma~ne and Atmospl~d~ $d~n~e~, C~y Uni~ts~y of N~w York, Bronx 10471 23 February 1976 and 24 September 1976ABSTRACT The nonlinear differential equation for the vertical diffusion of salt or heat) Ms ~nitially unstable solutions under conditions of

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Eric S. Posmentier and Joseph W. Racklin

NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 775NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEDistribution of Salinity and Temperature in the Hudson EstuaryI ERIC S. POSM-ENTIERInstitute of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, City University of New York, Bronx, N. Y. 10471JosEPtt W. RACHLIN Department of Biological Sciences, Lehman College, Bronx, N. Y. 10468 23 February 1976 and 12 April 1976ABSTRACT Vertical salinity profiles in the Hudson

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Alberto R. Piola and Arnold L. Gordon

APRIL 1984 ALBERTO R. PIOLA AND ARNOLD L. GORDON 747Pacific and Indian Ocean Upper-Layer Salinity Budget~ ALBERTO R. PIOLAServicio de Hidrografia Naval, 1271 Buenos Aires, Argentina ARNOLD L. GORDONLamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964(Manuscript received 4 April 1983, in final form 7 November 1983)ABSTRACTThe freshwater balance in the

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Robert W. Houghton and Martin H. Visbeck

1. Introduction The origin of the quasi-decadal fluctuation of upper ocean water properties in the North Atlantic has been the object of a number of investigations. These can be divided into two approaches: consideration of sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations and consideration of upper ocean salinity and sea ice variations. The basin-scale structure and coherence of the quasi-decadal SST fluctuations was first identified by Deser and Blackmon (1993) using EOF analysis of the

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Kern E. Kenyon

NOVEMBER 1978 K E R N E. K E N Y O N 1061The Shallow Salinity Minimum of the Eastern North Pacific in Winter KERN E. KENYONScripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego 92093(Manuscript received 10 February 1978, in final form 19 June 1978) ABSTRACT Extensive STD data at a 100 km station spacing from a recent winter cruise (March-April 1976

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J. R. Donguy and C. Henin

1132 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUMESNOTES AND CORRESPONDENCESurface Salinity Fluctuations Between 1956 and 1973 in the Western South Pacific Ocean J. R. DONOUY AND C. HENINCentre ORSTOM, Noumea, New Caledonia17 October 1977 and 29 May 1978ABSTRACT For the western South Pacific Ocean, the 1956-73 surface salinity is compared with the rainfall andwind information along the 180- meridian. On the

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