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Natalie Teale and David A. Robinson

distributions of water vapor in the climate literature (e.g., Louf et al. 2015 ; Zhang et al. 2003 ). When used in conjunction with histograms, we find that this test is useful in characterizing the bimodality of distribution in water vapor distributions. Mean sea level pressure from ERA-Interim at 0.75° × 0.75° resolution for the study area is employed to further assess the potential for discernable subpatterns of water vapor in the IVT nodes. 2) Temporal characteristics of water vapor transport patterns

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R. Garreaud

of CFSR is fully coupled with an ocean model and a two-layer sea ice model. In this work I used the 3D pressure level data, available every 6 h on a 0.5° × 0.5° latitude–longitude grid interpolated every 25 hPa in the vertical (from 1000 to 50 hPa), provided by the National Climatic Data Center throughout its National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) data server. To complement my synoptic analysis I used several satellite datasets, as described in Table 4 . Table 4

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Rebecca Gugerli, Marco Gabella, Matthias Huss, and Nadine Salzmann

. Lehning , 2017 : Grand challenges in cryospheric sciences: Toward better predictability of glaciers, snow and sea ice . Front. Earth Sci. , 5 , 64 , . 10.3389/feart.2017.00064 Hock , R. , and Coauthors , 2019 : High mountain areas. IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate , H.-O. Pörtner et al., Eds., IPCC, 131–202 . Howat , I. M. , S. de la Peña , D. Desilets , and G. Womack , 2018 : Autonomous ice sheet

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Ryan R. Neely III, Louise Parry, David Dufton, Lindsay Bennett, and Chris Collier

the presence of ice in the sampling volume, which may bias QPEs ( Herzegh and Jameson 1992 ; Fabry and Zawadzki 1995 ; Straka et al. 2000 ; Liu and Chandrasekar 2000 ; Rico-Ramirez et al. 2005 ; Bechini et al. 2013 ; Picca et al. 2014 ; Hall et al. 2015 ). An essential issue in dual-polarization radar rainfall estimation is determining which set of polarimetric observables and which method to employ for given meteorological conditions. For example, under what circumstances does K dp

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Gonzalo Leonardini, François Anctil, Vincent Vionnet, Maria Abrahamowicz, Daniel F. Nadeau, and Vincent Fortin

, . 10.1029/2011GL048049 Yen , Y. , 1981 : Review of thermal properties of snow, ice and sea ice. CRREL Rep. 81 – 10 , 27 pp. You , J. , D. Tarboton , and C. Luce , 2014 : Modeling the snow surface temperature with a one-layer energy balance snowmelt model . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 18 , 5061 – 5076 , . 10.5194/hess-18-5061-2014 Zappa , M. , F. Pos , U. Strasser , P. Warmerdam , and J. Gurtz

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Alyssa M. Stansfield, Kevin A. Reed, Colin M. Zarzycki, Paul A. Ullrich, and Daniel R. Chavas

discussed further in appendix B . b. Model description The model used for this study is the Community Earth System Model (CESM), a fully coupled global climate model with atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components. CAM is the atmospheric component of CESM, and specifically CAM5 ( Neale et al. 2012 ) with the spectral element (SE) dynamical core ( Taylor et al. 1997 ; Taylor 2011 ; Dennis et al. 2012 ) is utilized. CAM5 is a comprehensive atmospheric GCM that includes parameterizations of shallow

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David T. Bolvin, George J. Huffman, Eric J. Nelkin, and Jackson Tan

Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO)/TRITON ( McPhaden 1995 ), the Atlantic Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA; Bourlès et al. 2008 ), and the Indian Ocean–Research Moored Array for African–Asian–Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA; McPhaden et al. 2009 ) have issues compared to traditional land-based rain gauges, such as frequent interruptions in temporal coverage, wind effects, potential sea spray contamination, and loss due to piracy. In addition to buoys

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Carlo Montes, Nachiketa Acharya, S. M. Quamrul Hassan, and Timothy J. Krupnik

concentrated ( Ahmed and Karmakar 1993 ). The impact of intense rainstorms can be enhanced by Bangladesh’s geographical characteristics including proximity of the sea, and generally low-elevation and flat terrain ( Mirza 2011 ). Combined with one of the world’s highest population densities and given that nearly 60% of Bangladesh’s land is under agricultural land use ( World Bank 2020a , b ), these conditions significantly increase the risk of exposure, damage, and losses from weather-induced disasters. The

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Hengchun Ye, Judah Cohen, and Michael Rawlins

because of significant drops in station operation from 1990 to 1993. For this study we chose the time period from 1966 to 2000 because of more consistent observational practices. Among these 757 stations, 547 stations are retained for this study, having record lengths ranging from 27 to 35 years. The synoptic observation records include sea level pressure, station pressure, air temperature, vapor pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, cloud cover and type, and weather condition. The

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Carolina A. Bieri, Francina Dominguez, and David M. Lawrence

.9° × 1.25°). The FHIST component set was used in CESM. CESM is composed of several Earth system component models: ocean, land, atmosphere, sea ice, land ice, river, and ocean wave. There are many defined component sets available to CESM users; each determines the active component(s) for a given model run. Component sets beginning with “F” have active land and atmosphere components while all other components are inactive or prescribed. “HIST” component sets use transient forcing valid for

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