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Liang Chen, Trent W. Ford, and Priyanka Yadav

atmosphere, ocean, land, sea ice, and land ice. As the primary focus of this study is flash drought and land–atmosphere feedback, all the simulations are conducted with the FHIST component set. The FHIST component set allows the active, coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM6; Bogenschutz et al. 2018 ) and Community Land Model (CLM5; Lawrence et al. 2019 ) but using prescribed transient monthly sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice concentrations (SICs). The transient SSTs and SICs are derived

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Yafang Zhong, Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

through use of lead–lag correlation analysis, as discussed in the next section. c. Lead–lag correlation analysis Lead–lag correlation analysis is widely used in the study of ocean–atmosphere coupling to help identify the driving mechanisms. For example, the largely symmetric correlations of monthly wind and sea surface temperature (SST) with respect to the lags indicate essentially two-way interactions in the tropics ( Lian et al. 2018 ); whereas in the extratropics, the much heavier loading at wind

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M. Tugrul Yilmaz and Wade T. Crow

tends to be lower than , while both and underestimate c y (given and , if str y < str x ≪ 1 then ). REFERENCES Anderson, W. B. , Zaitchik B. F. , Hain C. R. , Anderson M. C. , Yilmaz M. T. , Mecikalski J. , and Schultz L. , 2012 : Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 9 , 4587 – 4631 . Caires, S. , and Sterl A. , 2003 : Validation of ocean wind and wave data using triple collocation . J. Geophys. Res

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Paulo Rodrigo Zanin and Prakki Satyamurty

1. Introduction The South American continent has a predominantly meridional shape from 12°N to 55°S. It is bathed by the tropical and extratropical waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and has a wide variety of landscapes due to the interaction between geological, climatological, and biological processes. The complexity of its geological formation resulted in intercalary mountain regions, as the Andes Cordillera, the Brazilian Shield, and the Guyanese Shield, and subsidence regions, as

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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

this time, the trough was already cut off from the main synoptic wave and continued advancing southward over Algeria, where it remained nearly stationary on 12 and 13 September ( Fig. 2a ). Fig . 2. ECMWF analyses valid at 1200 UTC 12 Sep 2019 of (a) geopotential (m 2 s −2 ; solid line), temperature (°C; dashed line) at 500 hPa, and 250-hPa potential vorticity (PVU; shaded) and (b) sea level pressure (hPa; solid line) and temperature (°C; dashed line) at 850 hPa. At low levels, the situation on 10

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Guotao Cui, Roger Bales, Robert Rice, Michael Anderson, Francesco Avanzi, Peter Hartsough, and Martha Conklin

(red line) and melting layer based on radar reflectivity in an atmospheric column, modified after Mizukami et al. (2013) . The on-the-ground rain–snow-transition elevation can be inferred from remotely sensed observations of atmospheric snow level (i.e., the atmospheric elevation at which snow becomes the dominant form of precipitation). Frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radars ( Johnston et al. 2009 , 2017 ) can estimate the snow level above their locations by identifying the elevation

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Mary M. Forrester and Reed M. Maxwell

topographic slope component ( Maxwell et al. 2016 ). The van Genuchten (1980) equations used for hydraulic relationships are given in terms of hydraulic head h as (6) S w ⁡ ( h ) = s sat − s res [ 1 + ⁡ ( α h ) n ] ⁡ ( 1 − 1 n ) + s res , (7) k r ⁡ ( h ) = { 1 − ⁡ ( α h ) n − 1 [ 1 + ⁡ ( α h ) n ] ⁡ ( 1 − 1 n ) } [ 1 + ⁡ ( α h ) β ] ⁡ ( 1 − 1 n ) / 2 . ParFlow also applies the two-dimensional kinematic wave equation as an overland flow boundary condition, and Manning’s equation establishes flow depth

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Gonzalo Leonardini, François Anctil, Vincent Vionnet, Maria Abrahamowicz, Daniel F. Nadeau, and Vincent Fortin

fluctuation, respectively. Because the primary forcing at the surface is diurnal ( You et al. 2014 ), ω X is set to 2 π / τ , where τ (s) is a time constant equal to one day. c. Temperature as a function of depth and time Solving Eq. (A1) assuming Eq. (A3) , one gets (A4) T X ⁡ ( z , t ) = T X m + A X ⁡   exp ⁡ ( − z d X )   sin ⁡ ( ω X t − z d X ) , where d X = 2 k X / ω X is the damping depth (m), which describes the way the thermal surface wave penetrates the snowpack. When z = d X , the

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Yanan Duan and Sanjiv Kumar

moisture observations, also called the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive; Entekhabi et al. 2014 ), makes it possible to evaluate model-simulated soil moisture within a large domain. We investigate streamflow predictability using a state-of-the-art National Water Model’s (NWM) streamflow forecasting system that has become operational in 2016 ( ). The NWM is an unprecedented effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to provide high

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Maxime Turko, Marielle Gosset, Modeste Kacou, Christophe Bouvier, Nanee Chahinian, Aaron Boone, and Matias Alcoba

attenuation k (dB km −1 ) due to the rainfall along the wave propagation path. Because both k and the rainfall intensity R (mm h −1 ) depend on the rain drop size distribution (DSD), they are related, and their relationship can be expressed via a power law: (1) k = a R b , where a and b depend strongly on the frequency, the polarization, and more mildly on other factors (DSD; temperature etc.). Table 1 reports values of a , b for several frequencies typical of the range commonly used on

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