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Yafang Zhong, Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

through use of lead–lag correlation analysis, as discussed in the next section. c. Lead–lag correlation analysis Lead–lag correlation analysis is widely used in the study of ocean–atmosphere coupling to help identify the driving mechanisms. For example, the largely symmetric correlations of monthly wind and sea surface temperature (SST) with respect to the lags indicate essentially two-way interactions in the tropics ( Lian et al. 2018 ); whereas in the extratropics, the much heavier loading at wind

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M. Tugrul Yilmaz and Wade T. Crow

tends to be lower than , while both and underestimate c y (given and , if str y < str x ≪ 1 then ). REFERENCES Anderson, W. B. , Zaitchik B. F. , Hain C. R. , Anderson M. C. , Yilmaz M. T. , Mecikalski J. , and Schultz L. , 2012 : Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 9 , 4587 – 4631 . Caires, S. , and Sterl A. , 2003 : Validation of ocean wind and wave data using triple collocation . J. Geophys. Res

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Paulo Rodrigo Zanin and Prakki Satyamurty

1. Introduction The South American continent has a predominantly meridional shape from 12°N to 55°S. It is bathed by the tropical and extratropical waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and has a wide variety of landscapes due to the interaction between geological, climatological, and biological processes. The complexity of its geological formation resulted in intercalary mountain regions, as the Andes Cordillera, the Brazilian Shield, and the Guyanese Shield, and subsidence regions, as

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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

this time, the trough was already cut off from the main synoptic wave and continued advancing southward over Algeria, where it remained nearly stationary on 12 and 13 September ( Fig. 2a ). Fig . 2. ECMWF analyses valid at 1200 UTC 12 Sep 2019 of (a) geopotential (m 2 s −2 ; solid line), temperature (°C; dashed line) at 500 hPa, and 250-hPa potential vorticity (PVU; shaded) and (b) sea level pressure (hPa; solid line) and temperature (°C; dashed line) at 850 hPa. At low levels, the situation on 10

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Guotao Cui, Roger Bales, Robert Rice, Michael Anderson, Francesco Avanzi, Peter Hartsough, and Martha Conklin

(red line) and melting layer based on radar reflectivity in an atmospheric column, modified after Mizukami et al. (2013) . The on-the-ground rain–snow-transition elevation can be inferred from remotely sensed observations of atmospheric snow level (i.e., the atmospheric elevation at which snow becomes the dominant form of precipitation). Frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radars ( Johnston et al. 2009 , 2017 ) can estimate the snow level above their locations by identifying the elevation

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Yanan Duan and Sanjiv Kumar

moisture observations, also called the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive; Entekhabi et al. 2014 ), makes it possible to evaluate model-simulated soil moisture within a large domain. We investigate streamflow predictability using a state-of-the-art National Water Model’s (NWM) streamflow forecasting system that has become operational in 2016 ( ). The NWM is an unprecedented effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to provide high

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Gonzalo Leonardini, François Anctil, Vincent Vionnet, Maria Abrahamowicz, Daniel F. Nadeau, and Vincent Fortin

fluctuation, respectively. Because the primary forcing at the surface is diurnal ( You et al. 2014 ), ω X is set to 2 π / τ , where τ (s) is a time constant equal to one day. c. Temperature as a function of depth and time Solving Eq. (A1) assuming Eq. (A3) , one gets (A4) T X ⁡ ( z , t ) = T X m + A X ⁡   exp ⁡ ( − z d X )   sin ⁡ ( ω X t − z d X ) , where d X = 2 k X / ω X is the damping depth (m), which describes the way the thermal surface wave penetrates the snowpack. When z = d X , the

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Maxime Turko, Marielle Gosset, Modeste Kacou, Christophe Bouvier, Nanee Chahinian, Aaron Boone, and Matias Alcoba

attenuation k (dB km −1 ) due to the rainfall along the wave propagation path. Because both k and the rainfall intensity R (mm h −1 ) depend on the rain drop size distribution (DSD), they are related, and their relationship can be expressed via a power law: (1) k = a R b , where a and b depend strongly on the frequency, the polarization, and more mildly on other factors (DSD; temperature etc.). Table 1 reports values of a , b for several frequencies typical of the range commonly used on

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Xuejin Wang, Baoqing Zhang, Feng Li, Xiang Li, Xuliang Li, Yibo Wang, Rui Shao, Jie Tian, and Chansheng He

Ocean monsoon and westerlies. However, the Indian Ocean monsoon only contributes to the summer precipitation of regions 1 and 2. From Fig. S5 , we can see that water vapor is transported from the west to the east in the APENC, however, the water vapor is mostly not converted into precipitation during the transportation process; the evaporated water is transported from regions 1 and 2 into 3 or 4. Figure 11 illustrates the regional moisture cycle. All components were standardized by dividing by the

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Klaus Vormoor and Thomas Skaugen

: Estimating the time dependence of air temperature using daily maxima and minima: A comparison of three methods . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 5 , 736 – 742 . Bárdossy, A. , 1998 : Generating precipitation time series using simulated annealing . Water Resour. Res. , 34 , 1737 – 1744 . Beldring, S. , 2003 : Estimation of parameters in a distributed precipitation-runoff model for Norway . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 7 , 304 – 316 . Bergström, S. , 1995 : The HBV model. Computer Models of

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