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Provinces mild climate and oceanic winds, the latter driving away mosquitoes, are among the favorable climatic conditions. Bunting.-Among the indirect climatic influences the character of vegetation which is determined by climate must be marked. The direct influences are species of animals and quality of furs, severity of climate, forma- tion of ice crust, sleet, storms, etc., affecting the migra- tion of animals. Agri.cwZtwe.-In the Okhotsk, Kamchatka. Chukotsk regions sharp oscillations. of

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Camilla Risvoll
,
Grete K. Hovelsrud
, and
Jan Åge Riseth

pasturelands Multiple studies show that reindeer avoid areas with anthropogenic activities for up to several kilometers and females with calves are particularly sensitive to encroachments ( Skarin and Åhman 2014 ; Anttonen et al. 2011 ). The herder’s ability to adapt to animal avoidance behavior by using alternative pastures and migration routes is limited (e.g., Risvoll and Hovelsrud 2016 ; Eira et al. 2018 ). The Planning and Building Act (PBA) stipulates that reindeer husbandry is included in

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Edward R. Carr
,
Grant Fleming
, and
Tshibangu Kalala

stresses and their relative importance as reported by individuals, took shape around the relative access of individuals to heavy agricultural tools such as plows and animal traction. Those without either tools or traction made up 22.7% of the sample; 54.5% of the sample reported owning animals but not farming equipment. Those with both comprised 20.5% of the sample. Compared with other ethnographic studies of agriculture among the Wolof in Senegal (e.g., Venema 1978 ), those in Ngetou Maleck appear to

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S. NOVAKOVSKY

Provinces mild climate and oceanic winds, the latter driving away mosquitoes, are among the favorable climatic conditions. Hunting.-Among the indirect climatic influences the character of vegetation which is determined by climate must be marked. The direct influences are species of animals and quality of furs, severity of climate, forma- tion of ice crust, sleet, storms, etc., affecting the migra- tion of animals. Agri.cwZtwe.-In the Okhotsk, Kamchatka. Chukotsk regions sharp oscillations. of

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Michael Garstang
,
David R. Fitzjarrald
,
Kurt Fristrup
, and
Conrad Brain

distance, has broad implications for the study of animal behavior and ecology ( Payne et al. 2003 ; McComb et al. 2003 ; Langbauer 2000 ). Decisive demonstration that animals adapt calling activity to propagation conditions requires a cross-disciplinary field experiment that is costly and complicated. Animals must be tracked accurately, a comprehensive record of acoustical activity must be obtained, and atmospheric measurements must be collected that can support accurate acoustical models. A pilot

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FRANCISCO SOUZA

, and tobacco.A t Rio de Janeiro the weather was generally fine with only one period of rainy weather-25th to 31st. Themeans for pressure and temperature were slightly belownormal. The rains were about normal excepting a fall of 2.58 inches on the 25th. The winds were generallyfresh, moving predominantly from the southern quad- rants. The maximum wind velocity !was over 36 milesper hour from the south on the evening of the 28th.of wool- 1 Countries i of wool-animals I38: 208,981bearing78,803,261 36

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Kristi G. Jochec
,
James W. Mjelde
,
Andrew C. Lee
, and
J. Richard Conner

, p. 103) states “ideally, grazers should be able to match stocking rates to seasonal conditions so that animal production is maximized and damage to pasture and land production is minimized.” Several recent studies in Australia suggest ranchers may have the flexibility to use seasonal climate forecasts to help to manage risk and improve long-term profitability ( Johnson et al. 2000 ; Ash et al. 2000 ; Stafford-Smith et al. 2000 ). Johnson et al. (2000) stress rangeland operations are

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would investigate the limiting conditions of tempera-ture and humidity under which animal life can exist. By experimenting upon animals in confinement such a researchcan be pushed to the determination of the death point. Sofar as human life is concerned there are many occupations inwhich life continues under observable extremes of heat andcold, dryness and moisture, calm and winds. Those who willkeep records of their sensations when employed in iron or steelworks, or in gas works, and especially in

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Savin S. Chand
,
Lynda E. Chambers
,
Mike Waiwai
,
Philip Malsale
, and
Elisabeth Thompson

: Traditional capacity for weather prediction, variability and coping strategies in the front line states of Nigeria . Agric. Sci. , 3 , 625 – 630 , doi: 10.4236/as.2012.34075 . Shoko, K. , 2012 : Indigenous weather forecasting systems: A case study of the biotic weather forecasting indicators for wards 12 and 13 in Mberengwa District Zimbabwe . J. Sustainable Dev. Africa , 14 , 92 – 114 . Tiwari, R. , and Tiwari S. , 2011 : Animals: A natural messenger for disasters . J. Nat. Prod. , 4 , 3

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660 MONTHLY WEATH.ER REVIEW. DECEMBER, 1899correctly. The study of nature has both an intellectual and a scientific aspect. From the latter point of view onerecords new or special phenomena, and may hope to discover new laws of nature, but from an intellectual point ofviewthe study becomes a means of increasing ones knowledge and disciplining ones reason and senses; from this point ofview, every one, old and young, must derive benefit from thestudy.BACK NUMBERS OF THE MONTHLY WEATHERREVIEW

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