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Jay Lawrimore, Thomas R. Karl, Mike Squires, David A. Robinson, and Kenneth E. Kunkel

recent decades. Also given the strong influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation on winter climate conditions, efforts to better understand its relationship to severe snowstorms, particularly in regions of the eastern United States, will be an important component of future studies. Acknowledgments The authors thank Sara Veasey and Debi Riddle for their support in the preparation of this manuscript and for the thoughtful recommendations of anonymous reviewers who helped us to

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Pavla Pekarova, Dana Halmova, Pavol Miklanek, Milan Onderka, Jan Pekar, and Peter Skoda

the Danube River at Bratislava for the period 1956–2000 were analyzed by Lisicky and Mucha (2003) . The impacts of human activities on water temperatures in the Danube along its entire length were investigated by Stancikova and Capekova (1993) . Over the past decade, emphasis has been placed on the increasing atmospheric temperatures as a result of the greenhouse effect and the impact of phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) on the fluctuations of

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Randal D. Koster

. , Mestas-Nuñez A. M. , and Trimble P. J. , 2001 : The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and its relation to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2077 – 2080 , doi: 10.1029/2000GL012745 . Francis, J. A. , and Skific N. , 2015 : Evidence linking rapid Arctic warming to mid-latitude weather patterns . Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London , A373 , 20140170 , doi: 10.1098/rsta.2014.0170 . Francis, J. A. , and Vavrus S. J. , 2015 : Evidence for a wavier

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G. W. K. Moore and Gerald Holdsworth

accumulation extracted from the summit region of Mount Logan contains a number of climate signals associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation, the Pacific decadal oscillation, the Pacific–North America teleconnection, as well as the Walker and Hadley circulations ( Moore et al. 2001 , 2002a , b , 2003 , 2004 ). As discussed in Holdsworth et al. (1992) and Moore et al. (2003) , many of these signals are not present in the precipitation record at Yakutat, Alaska ( Fig. 1 ), located at sea level only

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Yang Yang, Thian Yew Gan, and Xuezhi Tan

only focused on extreme precipitation of some parts of Canada ( Benyahya et al. 2014 ; Wang et al. 2015 ). Even though large-scale climate patterns have been teleconnected to precipitation in some parts of Canada (e.g., Gan et al. 2007 ), their influences on precipitation extremes have not received much attention and thus require further investigation ( Xi et al. 2018 ; Zhang et al. 2001 ). Using the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), Pacific–North American (PNA), and Atlantic Oscillation (AO

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M. F. P. Bierkens and L. P. H. van Beek

components of the climate system, such as sea surface temperature (SST) and related large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns ( Cullen et al. 2002 ; Peterson et al. 2002 ; Tootle et al. 2005 ). In Europe, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is considered to be the strongest driver of interyear climate variability ( Hurrell and van Loon 1997 ; Appenzeller et al. 1998 ) and the main factor explaining anomalies in winter precipitation and temperature ( Hurrell 1995 ). Owing to the connection between

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Lizhi Tao, Xinguang He, and Rui Wang

the Yangtze River basin. Peng et al. (2014) used a set of lagged climate indices, including two large-scale atmospheric circulation modes [the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)] and six indices derived from the SSTs in the tropical central and eastern Pacific, South China Sea, Kuroshio, western Pacific warm pool, and Indian Ocean to forecast seasonal precipitation over China. However, the performance of models is heavily dependent on the input variables used to develop

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Steven M. Quiring and Daria B. Kluver

Saunders, M. A. , Qian B. , and Lloyd-Hughes B. , 2003 : Summer snow extent heralding of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 30 , 1378 . Schaefer, K. , Denning A. S. , and Leonard O. , 2004 : The winter Arctic Oscillation and the timing of snowmelt in Europe. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 , L22205 . doi:10.1029/2004GL021035 . Stone, R. S. , Dutton E. G. , Harris J. M. , and Longenecker D. , 2002 : Earlier spring snowmelt in northern Alaska as an

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Wei Li, Jie Chen, Lu Li, Hua Chen, Bingyi Liu, Chong-Yu Xu, and Xiangquan Li

. , 29 , 3329 – 3342 , . 10.1007/s11269-015-1001-3 Cohen , J. , J. Foster , M. Barlow , K. Saito , and J. Jones , 2010 : Winter 2009–2010: A case study of an extreme Arctic Oscillation event . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 37 , L17707 , . Crochemore , L. , M.-H. Ramos , and F. Pappenberger , 2016 : Bias correcting precipitation forecasts to improve the skill of seasonal streamflow forecasts . Hydrol. Earth Syst

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Liang Guo, Ruud J. van der Ent, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Marie-Estelle Demory, Pier Luigi Vidale, Andrew G. Turner, Claudia C. Stephan, and Amulya Chevuturi

extreme events such as drought and floods. To improve our understanding and prediction of EA precipitation, it is essential to identify its sources of moisture and their associated variability. The climatology of EA precipitation decreases from southeast to northwest ( Zhai et al. 2005 ). In winter, variations in moisture transport and precipitation over EA are dominated by the winter monsoon in the north and ENSO in the south. The EA winter monsoon is linked to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the

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