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Christopher P. Weaver

that findings of large ABL mesoscale fluxes and related effects (e.g., large mesoscale vertical velocities) can be attributed, in part, to such an idealization. For example, on pages 3197–3198, they state (emphasis mine): Past research concerning interactions between land surface heterogeneity and the atmosphere is abundant. Studies using a mesoscale model with idealized, heterogeneous surface flux distribution on a scale of hundreds of kilometers have presented sea-breeze-like mesoscale

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Bernard Pinty, Alessio Lattanzio, John V. Martonchik, Michel M. Verstraete, Nadine Gobron, Malcolm Taberner, Jean-Luc Widlowski, Robert E. Dickinson, and Yves Govaerts

the bottom of the atmosphere ( z 0 ) is further compounded by the fact that all land surfaces themselves exhibit substantial spectral and anisotropic properties: they absorb and scatter solar radiation differently in different directions, and they do so differently at different wavelengths. These complex processes depend not only on the nature and optical properties of the objects that constitute the surface, but also on their structure and spatial heterogeneity. The interaction between the

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Philip Cunningham

prevalent in the atmosphere in the form of thunderstorm outflows (e.g., Charba 1974 ), sea-breeze fronts (e.g., Simpson 1994 ), and some cold fronts (e.g., Nielsen and Neilley 1990 ); density currents have also been a topic of extensive investigation because of their role in the initiation of moist convection but play an important role in their own right in the transport of airborne pollutants (e.g., Simpson 1997 ). Interactions between buoyant plumes and density currents may have further

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Samson Hagos, Zhe Feng, Sally McFarlane, and L. Ruby Leung

that over ocean by about 25% before the initiation of convection and by about 15% afterward. Fig . 6. Evolution of 500-hPa water vapor mixing ratio (g kg − 1 ) averaged over the core and stratiform regions of convective systems initiated over land and ocean. The evolution of zonal wind shear during the lifetime of the convective systems is examined in order to understand the interactions of the latter with horizontal momentum. In this study, low-level wind shear is defined as the absolute value of

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Li Dong and Stephen J. Colucci

the SH were provided by the Climate Diagnostics Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and analyzed with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) from the Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies. Dr. Anthony R. Lupo and two anonymous reviewers are thanked for making helpful suggestions for improvements to this manuscript. REFERENCES Alberta , T. L. , S. J. Colucci , and J. C. Davenport , 1991 : Rapid 500-mb cyclogenesis and anticyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev

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V. Ramanathan

to have obtained it from observertions over land stations in North America. The significant difference in the estimated surfacewarming between the modeling and the surfaceenergy balance approaches is of great concern. Thispaper resolves this important issue by illustratingthat the key to the problem lies in a proper understanding of the role of ocean-atmosphere interactions and feedback processes that produce a surfacewarming in climate models. Some of the deficienciesin the Newell and

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Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

parameterizations are required for studying hail physics and aerosol effects on hail using model simulations ( Loftus and Cotton 2014a ; Ilotoviz et al. 2016 ). For aerosol–cloud interactions, typical bulk microphysical parameterizations have substantial limitations in their ability to simulate aerosol impacts on convective intensity, as documented in several studies ( Lebo et al. 2012 ; Khain et al. 2015 ; Fan et al. 2016 ). The objective of this study is to investigate how urbanization-induced land and

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Kerry H. Cook

the lowest model level ( σ = 0.997). The aerodynamic drag coefficient C D is set to 0.001 over ocean and 0.003 over land to capture the more well-developed boundary layer that can develop over land. Momentum diffuses upward into the atmosphere, communicating the presence of the surface up to the 777-hPa level in the model. The acceleration of the flow by this process is given by with K υ ≡ l 2 ρg / p *∂ V /∂ σ. Here, l is a height-dependent mixing length that has a maximum value of 30 m

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Shigenori Murakami, Rumi Ohgaito, and Ayako Abe-Ouchi

two different local expressions whose spatial distributions are different, although they give the same value when averaged over the entire atmosphere (e.g., Holopainen 1978 ; Plumb 1983 ). In Part I of this paper ( Murakami 2011 , hereafter Part I ) one of the authors developed a new diagnostic scheme for the atmospheric local energetics analysis. The key concept of this analysis is the interaction energy flux. Using this concept, he shows it is possible to represent the local feature of the

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Ka Ming W. Lau

or larger than thecorresponding atmospheric heat transport at the same latitudes.1. Introduction It is now generally recognized that the climate of theearth embodies an enormously complex system in whichstrong interactions occur between the major components, v/z., the atmosphere, the ocean, the cryosphereand the lithosphere. Mechanical and thermal inhomogeneities at the earth surface created by the distribution of continental land masses, oceans, ice and snoware believed to be a major factor

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