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Martyn P. Clark, Reza Zolfaghari, Kevin R. Green, Sean Trim, Wouter J. M. Knoben, Andrew Bennett, Bart Nijssen, Andrew Ireson, and Raymond J. Spiteri

parameterizations to represent the dominant biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes (e.g., Walker et al. 2015 ; Fatichi et al. 2016 ). Land models are used for a myriad of applications, including applications to simulate the terrestrial component of the Earth system (e.g., Lawrence et al. 2019 ), to provide a lower boundary condition for the atmosphere in numerical weather prediction models (e.g., Balsamo et al. 2011 ), to assess risks to water security (e.g., Wada et al. 2014 ), and to predict

Open access
Lucas Bohne, Courtenay Strong, and W. James Steenburgh

each terrain orientation. Image processing using the Moore neighbor-tracing algorithm modified by Jacob’s stopping criteria identified contiguous regions of identical terrain orientation direction ( Gonzalez et al. 2004 ). Then, each of these regions was labeled with a facet number and the facet boundaries in latitude–longitude coordinates were determined from the perimeter of each contiguous region using additional image processing ( Haralick and Shapiro 1992 ). The facet algorithm and image

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Yanhong Gao, Fei Chen, and Yingsha Jiang

dynamic downscaling method uses a regional climate model, in which precipitation over a region of interest is generated based on the atmospheric dynamics and physics of the regional climate model used although the quality of the lateral boundary conditions exert large impact on its performance ( Prein et al. 2015 ; Xu and Yang 2015 ; Gao et al. 2017 ). This method has been widely applied for downscaling reanalysis data and global climate simulations to study regional climate and climate change in

Open access
Hongyi Li, Mark S. Wigmosta, Huan Wu, Maoyi Huang, Yinghai Ke, André M. Coleman, and L. Ruby Leung

Manning’s roughness coefficient, which is mainly controlled by surface roughness and sinuosity of the flow path. A common continuity equation for these components can be written as where (m 3 s −1 ) is the upstream inflow rate for main channel routing and is set to zero for hillslope and subnetwork routing. The value (m 3 s −1 ) is the outflow rate from hillslope into the subnetwork, from the subnetwork into the main channel, or from the current main channel to the next downstream main channel

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Junxia Li, Xueping Bai, Yuting Jin, Fangbo Song, Zhenju Chen, Lixin Cai, Fenghua Zou, Mengzhu Jiang, Ruixin Yun, and Zhaoyang Lv

the Hailar River basin directly affect water resources and ecosystems in the semiarid to arid Hulun Buir area, but whether runoff variability has increased in this basin remains unclear. The instrumental runoff record for the Hailar River basin is too short (at only 51 years) to understand the current conditions and predict the rules of annual runoff variations. Therefore, in the Hailar River basin and its vicinity, tree-ring based precipitation ( Chen et al. 2012b ; Gao et al. 2013 ; Liu et al

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Kshitij Parajuli, Scott B. Jones, David G. Tarboton, Lawrence E. Hipps, Lin Zhao, Morteza Sadeghi, Mark L. Rockhold, Alfonso Torres-Rua, and Gerald N. Flerchinger

results among different LSMs even when the models are driven by the same boundary forcing ( Dirmeyer et al. 2006 ; Koster et al. 2009 ; Zheng et al. 2017 ). LSM simulation of soil moisture is recognized as being subject to errors from multiple sources ( Song et al. 2014 ; Xue et al. 2013 ), but studies have suggested that development of methods for more detailed soil parameterization could improve the ability of LSMs to provide more accurate predictions ( Gayler et al. 2013 , 2014 ). Current LSMs

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M. H. J. van Huijgevoort, P. Hazenberg, H. A. J. van Lanen, A. J. Teuling, D. B. Clark, S. Folwell, S. N. Gosling, N. Hanasaki, J. Heinke, S. Koirala, T. Stacke, F. Voss, J. Sheffield, and R. Uijlenhoet

. 2004 ). In the current paper, we used a contour-tracing technique ( Chang et al. 2004 ; Wagenknecht 2007 ) to identify the outer boundaries of a given cluster. Next, cells belonging to the inner regions of a drought cluster are found by applying a connected component-labeling approach ( Suzuki et al. 2003 ; He et al. 2009 ; Wu et al. 2009 ). The combination of these two techniques results in a double-pass segmentation algorithm, which is generally assumed to be computationally efficient ( He et

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Ken Harrison, and Shujia Zhou

and drought ( van den Hurk et al. 2011 ; Koster et al. 2010 ), which includes immediate effects of the land on the temperature and humidity structure in the boundary layer, convective initiation, and mesoscale circulations ( Di Giuseppe et al. 2011 ). In addition, the influence of soil moisture on precipitation has been under community-wide investigation in a range of studies from local ( Santanello et al. 2011b ) to global ( Koster et al. 2004 ) scales. What is less understood is how specific

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Ben S. Pickering, Steven Best, David Dufton, Maryna Lukach, Darren Lyth, and Ryan R. Neely III

lack of a reference dataset, primarily due to the rarity of hail in the United Kingdom ( Punge and Kunz 2016 ; Webb et al. 2009 ). For example, the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD; Dotzek et al. 2009 ) contains only 32 hail reports in the United Kingdom during the 5-yr study period under examination. The hail class is therefore neglected in this study. The boundary between rain, mixed-phase, and snow (R–M–S) is important because the presence of mixed-phase precipitation typically indicates

Open access
Anil Kumar, Robert A. Houze Jr., Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Christa Peters-Lidard

conducting two simulations is mainly because 1) the coarser simulation provides important information on larger-scale synoptic flows, moisture transport, and regional-scale precipitation patterns that occurred from 2 to 5 August 2010 and 2) the very high-resolution simulation provides important information about the storm structure that passed over Leh. Fig . 2. Flowchart detailing the WRF-LIS coupling framework. The boundary and initial conditions for the large-scale atmospheric fields, soil parameters

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