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Ioannis Sofokleous, Adriana Bruggeman, Silas Michaelides, Panos Hadjinicolaou, George Zittis, and Corrado Camera

, which includes steep topography close to the lateral boundaries, may yield adverse effects on regional climate simulations at 6-km resolution. For simulations at 2.5-km resolution, over a region with relatively homogenous flat terrain, Brisson et al. (2016) found that a minimum distance of about 150 km between the evaluation domain and the lateral boundary was required to achieve convergence of modeled precipitation toward observations. According to Rojas and Seth (2003) , the choice of the

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A. Amengual, A. Hermoso, D. S. Carrió, and V. Homar

consist of dynamical downscaling of a coarser resolution global model to include variability in the initial and boundary conditions (IC/LBCs) and/or the use of multiple combinations of physical parameterizations to represent model error ( Tian et al. 2019 ; Furnari et al. 2020 ; Roux et al. 2020 ). However, dynamic downscaling of IC/LBCs cannot produce perturbations at the smallest simulated scales by current NWP models. Perturbing at these spatial ranges is essential to cope with rapidly growing

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T. J. Bellerby

1. Introduction Current high-resolution satellite precipitation products combine information from multiple satellite sensors carried on a range of different satellite platforms ( Adler et al. 2000 ; Behrangi et al. 2010 ; Bellerby et al. 2009 ; Huffman et al. 2007 ; Joyce et al. 2004 ; Kidd et al. 2003 ; Marzano et al. 2004 ; Nicholson et al. 2003a , b ; Sorooshian et al. 2000 ; Tapiador et al. 2004 ; Todd et al. 2001 ; Turk and Miller 2005 ; Ushio et al. 2009 ; Xu et al. 1999

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Hanh Nguyen, Jason A. Otkin, Matthew C. Wheeler, Pandora Hope, Blair Trewin, and Christa Pudmenzky

found to be useful for monitoring drought over the contiguous United States ( Anderson et al. 2007 , 2013 ), Brazil ( Anderson et al. 2016a ), and the Czech Republic ( Anderson et al. 2016b ). It is currently used as an input to the U.S. Drought Monitor (M. Svoboda 2019, personal communication). The ESI is especially useful for monitoring rapidly intensifying drought, or flash drought , with examples from both the United States ( Otkin et al. 2018a , b , and references therein) and Australia

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Maheshwari Neelam, Rajat Bindlish, Peggy O’Neill, George J. Huffman, Rolf Reichle, Steven Chan, and Andreas Colliander

desirable to flag any SMAP observations and retrievals based on ancillary knowledge of recent precipitation at a given location to avoid overestimation of soil moisture. Since SMAP does not have the ability to detect rain by an independent means, it relies on outside ancillary data sources. Currently, SMAP’s L2SMP soil moisture algorithm includes flagging, which indicates the presence or absence of precipitation at the time of a SMAP overpass based on 3 h time-average precipitation estimates from the

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Eli J. Dennis and Ernesto Hugo Berbery

-to-annual time scales ( Dirmeyer 2011 ; Roundy and Wood 2015 ), and extending into climate scales ( Seneviratne et al. 2010 ; Koster et al. 2006 ). Soil moisture affects the partitioning of surface fluxes that control the vertical stability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Land surface–atmosphere coupling also depends on the spatial extent of a phenomenon, ranging from local scales ( Santanello et al. 2018 ) to basin scales ( Betts 2009 ; Weaver 2004 ; Ferguson et al. 2012 ). In certain synoptic

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Long Yang, James A. Smith, Daniel B. Wright, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, Fuqiang Tian, and Heping Hu

1. Introduction In this paper, we examine the hydroclimatology, hydrometeorology, and hydrology of floods through analyses centered on the Menomonee River basin in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, metropolitan region ( Fig. 1 ). The Menomonee River basin, which has a drainage area of 319 km 2 , exhibits heterogeneous land use and land cover, including some of the most heavily urbanized portions of Milwaukee ( Zhang and Smith 2003 ). Adjacent to the northern boundary of the Menomonee River basin is the

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Martyn P. Clark, Reza Zolfaghari, Kevin R. Green, Sean Trim, Wouter J. M. Knoben, Andrew Bennett, Bart Nijssen, Andrew Ireson, and Raymond J. Spiteri

parameterizations to represent the dominant biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes (e.g., Walker et al. 2015 ; Fatichi et al. 2016 ). Land models are used for a myriad of applications, including applications to simulate the terrestrial component of the Earth system (e.g., Lawrence et al. 2019 ), to provide a lower boundary condition for the atmosphere in numerical weather prediction models (e.g., Balsamo et al. 2011 ), to assess risks to water security (e.g., Wada et al. 2014 ), and to predict

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Hongyi Li, Mark S. Wigmosta, Huan Wu, Maoyi Huang, Yinghai Ke, André M. Coleman, and L. Ruby Leung

Manning’s roughness coefficient, which is mainly controlled by surface roughness and sinuosity of the flow path. A common continuity equation for these components can be written as where (m 3 s −1 ) is the upstream inflow rate for main channel routing and is set to zero for hillslope and subnetwork routing. The value (m 3 s −1 ) is the outflow rate from hillslope into the subnetwork, from the subnetwork into the main channel, or from the current main channel to the next downstream main channel

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Junxia Li, Xueping Bai, Yuting Jin, Fangbo Song, Zhenju Chen, Lixin Cai, Fenghua Zou, Mengzhu Jiang, Ruixin Yun, and Zhaoyang Lv

the Hailar River basin directly affect water resources and ecosystems in the semiarid to arid Hulun Buir area, but whether runoff variability has increased in this basin remains unclear. The instrumental runoff record for the Hailar River basin is too short (at only 51 years) to understand the current conditions and predict the rules of annual runoff variations. Therefore, in the Hailar River basin and its vicinity, tree-ring based precipitation ( Chen et al. 2012b ; Gao et al. 2013 ; Liu et al

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