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Ashraf Dewan, Md. Faruk Hossain, Md. Masudur Rahman, Yasuke Yamane, and Ronald L. Holle

trough passes over a region ( Holle and Cooper 2016b ). In the Asian monsoon affecting Bangladesh, tropical moisture is brought from the south into the Indian subcontinent as the Northern Hemisphere summer arrives. Tropical regions of the world, including both land and water, are estimated to account for 78% of global lightning ( Christian et al. 2003 ), especially where there are marked elevation changes and land–water boundaries ( Albrecht et al. 2016 ; Holle and Murphy 2016 ). There are several

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Lisa Dilling, Kirsten Lackstrom, Benjamin Haywood, Kirstin Dow, Maria Carmen Lemos, John Berggren, and Scott Kalafatis

document review of stakeholder needs, analyzing findings within emergent categories of data and information, governance, and communication. We also consider the implications of these findings for the future evolution of decision-support activities. 2. Information use and decision context Through the years, scholars and managers of science have suggested and designed different strategies to enhance the use of science in decision making, including creating and developing boundary organizations and

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Scott E. Kalafatis, Jasmine Neosh, Julie C. Libarkin, Kyle Powys Whyte, and Chris Caldwell

work more effectively in these efforts. These individuals have participated in collaborations exemplifying the importance and challenge of working across professional, cultural, institutional, and historical boundaries: collaborations between those affiliated with Native American Tribes in the United States (hereinafter “Tribes”) and climate science organizations (CSOs)—governmental and nongovernmental organizations providing decision support. Though the development of supportive collaborative

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Jennifer R. Fownes and Shorna B. Allred

suggests that psychologically close information may be more influential: individuals tend to think about the current day even when asked about temperature trends over longer time periods ( Druckman and Shafranek 2017 ; Druckman 2015 ). Experiential processing can also be affected by existing abstract ideas, a process known as motivated reasoning ( Kunda 1990 ). The belief that climate change is happening can influence how individuals perceive their personal experiences with climate change or weather

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Ronald L. Holle, William A. Brooks, and Kenneth L. Cummins

the NLDN during the period of study ( Mallick et al. 2014 ; Nag et al. 2015 ). For each CG flash and stroke, the latitude, longitude, time, signal strength, and polarity were collected within the national park boundaries. NLDN reports with positive peak currents <15 kA have been excluded because of their tendency to be cloud pulses ( Cummins and Murphy 2009 ). Additional recent studies supporting these results of NLDN performance are in Koshak et al. (2015) and Medici et al. (2017

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Ellen Kohl and John A. Knox

). Hulme (2008 , p. 10) contends this can be accomplished by “dissolving the strained boundaries between Nature and Culture, by revealing that knowledge and scale are co dependent, by disclosing the spatial contingencies of climate change knowledge.” This process does not negate scientific knowledge, nor does it overprivilege experiential or place-based knowledge, but “instead, it requires that we be attuned to the ways that scientific and nonscientific ways of knowing develop political significance

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Siri Veland

ancestors across the coast of northern Australia. These trails continue to follow the topography of terrain now extending tens of meters below current sea level ( Flood 1983 ; Veland et al. 2013 ; Nunn and Reid 2015 ). In the canons of Earth science, it can be said that the daily, annual, and millennial inundation of Australia’s top end finds expression in a cosmology that does not separate earth and water ( Muller 2008 ; Jackson et al. 2005 ; Allen 1994 ). Engagements with and responsibilities for

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P. Zion Klos, John T. Abatzoglou, Alycia Bean, Jarod Blades, Melissa A. Clark, Megan Dodd, Troy E. Hall, Amanda Haruch, Philip E. Higuera, Joseph D. Holbrook, Vincent S. Jansen, Kerry Kemp, Amber Lankford, Timothy E. Link, Troy Magney, Arjan J. H. Meddens, Liza Mitchell, Brandon Moore, Penelope Morgan, Beth A. Newingham, Ryan J. Niemeyer, Ben Soderquist, Alexis A. Suazo, Kerri T. Vierling, Von Walden, and Chelsea Walsh

. 2010 ; Betts 2011 ; USGCRP 2011a ; Blunden and Arndt 2013 ). Despite the diversity of indicator-focused studies, specific changes occurring within the inland northwest of the United States have not been synthesized, and no climate change assessment of indicators and data needs at an appropriate scale for Idaho end users currently exists. End users represent a broad range of natural resource professionals, including those working for federal and state agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and

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K. Kvale, K. Zickfeld, T. Bruckner, K. J. Meissner, K. Tanaka, and A. J. Weaver

(WBGU; Schubert et al. 2006 ) and are to be interpreted as recommended boundaries on acceptable levels of anthropogenic alteration of the Earth system, for the purpose of giving decision makers quantitative guidelines for avoiding DAI. The set of guardrails is as follows (in the following referred to as “WBGU guardrails”): Climate protection: The global mean rise in near-surface air temperature must be limited to a maximum of 2°C relative to the preindustrial value while also limiting the rate of

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Kirsten Lackstrom, Nathan P. Kettle, Benjamin Haywood, and Kirstin Dow

different climate-sensitive sectors is important to understanding how science and technology can most effectively be developed and deployed to enhance local adaptive capacities ( Bowen et al. 2012 ; Virji et al. 2012 ). A host of government agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) currently engage in climate decision support through the provision of data, information, and products. An ongoing challenge is to ensure that scientific knowledge is meaningful for decision makers and that diverse

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