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R. G. Isaacs and J. C. Barnes

of theanalyses. Another area where data from various satellites havebeen incorporated is the compilation of cloud climatologies. It has been recognized for some time that improved global cloud climatologies can only be accomplished using satellite data, usually from several spaceplatforms. The three-dimensional (3-D) nephanalysisdeveloped by the Air Force has been used operationallyfor several years, as well as having been used extensivelyin comparative studies. The 3-D nephanalysis model

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Michael D. King, Maxwell G. Strange, Peter Leone, and Lamdin R. Blaine

R. A. McClatchey, 1980: Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: Computer code LOWTRAN 5. AFGL-TR-80-0067, Air Force Geophysics Lab oratories, Hanscom AFB, 233 pp.Knollenberg, R. G., 1981: Techniques for probing cloud microstruc ture. Clouds: Their Formation, Optical Properties, and Effects, P. V. Hobbs and A. Deepak, Eds., Academic Press, 15-89.McCormick, N. J., 1985: Methods for estimating the similarity pa rameter of clouds from internal measurements of the scattered radiation field

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Kenneth R. Knapp, Alisa H. Young, Hilawe Semunegus, Anand K. Inamdar, and William Hankins

.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0689:LASDZA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0689:LASDZA>2.0.CO;2 Kiehl , J. , 1994 : On the observed near cancellation between longwave and shortwave cloud forcing in tropical regions . J. Climate , 7 , 559 – 565 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<0559:OTONCB>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<0559:OTONCB>2.0.CO;2 Knapp , K. R. , 2008a : Calibration of long-term geostationary infrared observations using HIRS . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 25 , 183 – 195 , https

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Timothy J. Wagner and Jessica M. Kleiss

Xi B. , 2005 : A climatology of midlatitude continental clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility: Part I: Low-level cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties . J. Climate , 18 , 1391 – 1410 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI3342.1 . Dong, X. , Xi B. , and Minnis P. , 2006 : A climatology of midlatitude continental clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II: Cloud fraction and surface radiative forcing . J. Climate , 19 , 1765 – 1783 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI3710.1 . Dai, A

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Jeffrey L. Stith and Richard L. Benner

DECEMBER 1987 JEFFREY L. STITH AND RICHARD L. BENNER 599Applications of Fast Response Continuous SF6 Analyzers to In Situ Cloud Studies JEFFREY L. STITHUniversity of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202 RICHARD L. BENNERNorth American Weather Consultants, Salt Lake City, UT 8411 ?(Manuscript received 3 October 1986, in final form 26 March 1987)ABSTRACT The airborne applications of two

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Sergey Y. Matrosov and David D. Turner

1. Introduction Ground-based microwave radiometer measurements have long been used for retrievals of the total amount of the cloud liquid water in an atmospheric vertical column—liquid water path (LWP)—and total columnar integrated water vapor (IWV) (e.g., Hogg et al. 1983 ). Dual-channel radiometers with operational frequencies near the water vapor absorption line around 22 GHz and in the transparent atmospheric “window” around 30–35 GHz (Ka band) are traditionally utilized for these

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Andrew K. Heidinger

1. Introduction In this paper, an algorithm is presented that derives the statistics of the horizontal distribution of the cloud optical depth over a large region (a grid cell) based on the statistics of the horizontal distribution of the visible reflectance and the mean values of other channel observations. In this context, a large region is an area consisting of many pixels such as grid cells used for numerical weather prediction (NWP) models that have resolutions ranging from 20 to 100 km

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Pavlos Kollias, Nitin Bharadwaj, Kevin Widener, Ieng Jo, and Karen Johnson

Kollias P. , 2013 : Evaluation of gridded Scanning ARM Cloud Radar reflectivity observations and vertical Doppler velocity retrievals. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 6, 9579–9621 , doi:10.5194/amtd-6-9579-2013 . Mace, G. G. , and Benson S. , 2008 : The vertical structure of cloud occurrence and radiative forcing at the SGP ARM site as revealed by 8 years of continuous data . J. Climate , 21 , 2591 – 2610 . Mather, J. , and Voyles J. , 2013 : The ARM Climate Research Facility: A review

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Yoo-Jeong Noh, John M. Forsythe, Steven D. Miller, Curtis J. Seaman, Yue Li, Andrew K. Heidinger, Daniel T. Lindsey, Matthew A. Rogers, and Philip T. Partain

. , and J. M. Slingo , 1988 : The response of a general circulation model to cloud longwave forcing. I: Introduction and initial experiments . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 114 , 1027 – 1062 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49711448209 . 10.1002/qj.49711448209 Stephens , G. L. , and Coauthors , 2002 : The CloudSat mission and the A-Train: A new dimension of space-based observations of clouds and precipitation . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 1771 – 1790 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-83-12-1771 . 10.1175/BAMS

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H. G. Hughes and C. R. Zeisse

13903 Kneizys, F. X., E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd Jr., G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, and S. A. Clouth, 1988:User’s Guide to LOWTRAN 7. Tech. Rep. 88-0177, Air Force Geophysical Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, 137 pp. Noonkester, V. R., 1982: Aerosol and humidity structure beneath maritime stratus clouds: 1981 data. Tech. Rep. 783, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, California, 128 pp. ——, 1985: Profiles of optical extinction coefficients calculated from

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