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Sheekela Baker-Yeboah, D. Randolph Watts, and Deirdre A. Byrne

. E. , 2008 : Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation. Nature , 456 , 489 – 492 . 10.1038/nature07426 Byrne, D. A. , 2000 : From the Agulhas to the South Atlantic: Measuring inter-ocean fluxes. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 162 pp . Byrne, D. A. , and McClean J. L. , 2008 : Sea level anomaly signals in the Agulhas Current region. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L13601 . doi:10.1029/2008GL034087 . 10.1029/2008GL034087 Byrne

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Manuel Vargas-Yáñez, Gregorio Parrilla, Alicia Lavín, Pedro Vélez-Belchí, César González-Pola, and Alonso Hernández-Guerra

1. Introduction The ocean circulation and its water mass distribution and variability present different length and time scales. We can distinguish length scales from the order of the basin size to mesoscale (some hundred kilometers), and from a continuum of downscaling length scales down to microturbulence. Our knowledge about the spatial distribution of the different properties of the ocean comes mainly from in situ measurements and satellite data, and more recently from autonomous profilers

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Weiwei Fu and Jiang Zhu

. , 2000 : Using satellite-derived sea level and temperature profiles for determining the salinity variability: A new approach . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 8537 – 8547 . Masina, S. , Pinardi N. , and Navarra A. , 2001 : A global ocean temperature and altimeter data assimilation system for studies of climate variability . Climate Dyn. , 17 , 687 – 700 . McPhaden, M. J. , and Coauthors , 1998 : The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) observing system: A decade of progress . J

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I. Hoteit, B. Cornuelle, V. Thierry, and D. Stammer

. 10.1175/1520-0485(2000)030<3261:OTVOTT>2.0.CO;2 Fu, L. , Christensen E. , and Yamarone C. , 1994 : TOPEX/POSEIDON mission overview. J. Geophys. Res. , 99 , 24369 – 24381 . 10.1029/94JC01761 Gent, P. R. , and Cane M. A. , 1989 : A reduced gravity, primitive equation model of the upper equatorial ocean. J. Comput. Phys. , 81 , 444 – 480 . 10.1016/0021-9991(89)90216-7 Giese, B. S. , and Carton J. A. , 1999 : Interannual and decadal variability in the tropical and midlatitude

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Renellys C. Perez, Silvia L. Garzoli, Christopher S. Meinen, and Ricardo P. Matano

). OFES reproduces well the large-scale sea surface height (SSH) variability in the South Atlantic compared with altimetric data ( Dong et al. 2011 ; E. Giarolla 2010, personal communication). However, OFES underestimates the quasi-decadal increasing tendency of the SSH anomaly (SSHA) observed in the South Atlantic (E. Giarolla 2010, personal communication), and the Agulhas rings are too energetic and the Agulhas ring corridor extends too far to the north in the model ( Dong et al. 2011 ; E. Giarolla

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Marlos Goes, Gustavo Goni, Shenfu Dong, Timothy Boyer, and Molly Baringer

: Measuring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26°N . Prog. Oceanogr. , 130 , 91 – 111 , . 10.1016/j.pocean.2014.10.006 Ridgway , K. , R. Coleman , R. Bailey , and P. Sutton , 2008 : Decadal variability of East Australian Current transport inferred from repeated high-density XBT transects, a CTD survey and satellite altimetry . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , C08039 , . Riser , S. , and

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Giuseppe M. R. Manzella and Marco Gambetta

affected by errors is even more problematic because of the large seasonal and interannual variability of the seawater characteristics. In situ observations are still far from the stage of “data deluge” that is typical of remotely sensed observations; however, different sensors are collecting data in an operational way, increasing data quantity in a manner that was not foreseen a decade ago. Although the procedures for quality assurance–quality control are well established, “good use of data” requires

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N. V. Zilberman, D. H. Roemmich, S. T. Gille, and J. Gilson

drawing a large interest within the scientific community, the seasonal to decadal variability of the EAC transport, including its linkage to El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the southern annular mode, as well as to variations in the Indonesian Throughflow, is not well understood ( Ridgway et al. 2008 ; Hill et al. 2011 ). The presented method provides long-term times series of the EAC near Brisbane and can be applied to other HR-XBT transects spanning the EAC system. By extending the temporal domain

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John R. Christy, Roy W. Spencer, William B. Norris, William D. Braswell, and David E. Parker

instrumentation for the 22-yr period of comparison (1979–2000.) Minqin was chosen independent of this study, being selected by NOAA as 1 of 12 stations for examination at the upper-air workshop in Asheville, North Carolina, October 2000 ( Free et al. 2002 ). To our knowledge, Minqin temperatures had, previous to the workshop, not been compared with satellite products. The basic statistical metrics used are monthly and annual correlation of anomalies ( r MON , r ANN ), trend per decade ( b, the slope of the

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Alberto Troccoli and Keith Haines

: Initial conditions for a general circulation model of tropical oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 147–157. 10.1175/1520-0485(1987)017<0147:ICFAGC>2.0.CO;2 Reverdin, G., D. Cayan, and Y. Kushnir, 1997: Decadal variability of hydrography in the upper northern North Atlantic in 1948–1990. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 8505–8531. 10.1029/96JC03943 Roemmich, D., M. Morris, W. R. Young, and J. R. Donguy, 1994: Fresh equatorial jets. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 540–558. 10

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